(a) Several techniques are now available for users to connect to the Internet.
(i) A modem is commonly used to dial up to the Internet. Why is a modem needed for data communications over the telephone system?
(ii) Another way to connect to the Internet is by using ADSL technology. "ADSL is asymmetric". Explain this statement.
(b) What is multicasting? What is the structure of IP Multicast address?
(c) How is the routing of multicast datagrams different from the routing of other IP datagrams?
(d) The IP Address of a Computer is, using the modern notation, 18.104.22.168/24. What are the network, subnet and subnet mask of the computer's IP address?
(e) IP packet delivery in the Internet is characteristed as unreliable, connectionless and best-effort. Describe very briefly what each of these terms means in regard to the IP protocol.
(f) IP packet delivery is unreliable, yet the Internet is commonly used for reliable interprocess communications. How is this reliability achieved? Explain briefly.
(g) Explain what is meant by Quality of Service (QoS).
(h) Describe the two ways for implementing quality of service in the Internet?