What are externalities and corrective taxes, Microeconomics

1. What are externalities? Give an example of positive and negative externality and explain why the market outcomes are inefficient in the presence of externalities?

2. What are the different types of private solutions to externalities?

3. Discuss briefly the public policies towards externalities?

4. What are corrective taxes? Why do economists prefer them to regulations as a way to protect the environment from pollution?

5. What are the four different types of goods differentiated on the basis of the characteristics of rivalry and excludability?

6. Explain what is meant by a good being "excludable". Explain what is meant by a good being "rival in consumption". Is a pizza excludable? Is it rival in consumption?

7. Explain what is meant by the term "free rider". Can an individual be a free rider when consuming a private good? Why or why not?

8. Define common resource. Without Government intervention, will people use this good (a stream of clean water passing by an industrial area) too much or little too much? Why? Define price ceiling and price control. Give an example for each. Which leads to shortage? Which leads to surplus?

9. What is the importance of property rights? Discuss.

10. What is meant by cost-benefit analysis? How the calculation of cost-benefit analysis can be considered as a difficult one?

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