Types of efficiency-efficient market hypothesis , Financial Management

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Types of Efficiency   

Efficient market theory can be described in three ways:

1) Allocative Efficiency:
A market is allocatively proficient when it directs savings towards the most proficient productive enterprise or project. In this condition, the most proficient enterprises will find it simpler to increase funds and economic prosperity for the entire economy should outcome.

Allocative effectiveness will be at its optimal level when there is no alternative allotment of funds channelled from savings which would outcome in higher economic prosperity. To be allocatively proficient, the market must have fewer financial intermediaries such that funds are allocated directly from savers to users, hence financial disintermediation must be encouraged.

2) Operational Efficiency:
This concept associates to the cost, to the borrower and lender, of doing business in a specific market.  The greater the transaction cost, the greater the cost of employing financial market and hence the lower the operational efficiency. Transaction cost is kept as low as possible where there is open competition between broker and other market participants. For a market to be operationally proficient, hence, we require to have adequate market markers who are capable to play continuously.

3) Information Efficiency:
This reflects the extent to which the information concerning the future prospect of a security is reflected in its present price. When all known (public information) is reflected in the security price, then investing in securities becomes a fair game. All investors have similar chances mainly since all the information which can be identified is already reflected in share prices. Information effectiveness is significant in financial management since it means that the effect of management decision will rapidly and accurately be reflected in security prices. Efficient market theory associates to information processing efficiency. It argues that stock markets are proficient such that information is reflected in share prices precisely and quickly.


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