THE SURPLUS CAPITAL METHOD
Under this method, the initial amounts repaid to partners are in order to reduce their capitals to amounts such that these are now in the same ratio as that in which they share profits and losses. The amounts so repaid are referred to as “repayment of surplus capital”.For example, if there are three partners who share profits and losses equally, and have capitals of Ksh 100,000 Ksh 60,000 and Ksh 40,000, the surplus capitals will be as follows:
Once the surplus capital has been paid to partners the remaining capital, known as ‘base capital’ can be repaid. The base capital is in the same ratio as that in which profits and losses are shared. In the illustration, it is 1:1:1(equal). Any cash collected can also be distributed in profit sharing ration – 1:1:1. This will allow capital balances to fall uniformly as more and more cash is paid to partners.As a final example to this, assume that there are three partners with capitals of Ksh 60,000, Ksh 75,000 and Ksh 120,000 who share profits and losses in the ratio 3:2:1 respectively. Their surplus capitals can be illustrated as follows:
Of course, there will be a priority payment of surplus capital between the two partners who have surplus capital. The partner who will receive the first payment is said to have been repaid his ‘surplus surplus capital’.