Sympathetic and para sympathetic nervous system, Biology


  1. These sympathetic chain are connected with ramus comminicause of thoracic & lumber part.
  2. Due to this reason this system is called as thoraco-lumber out flow.
  3. The nerve fibres which are situated between sympathetic chain & CNS are called as pre ganglionic nerve fibres.
  4. Nerve fibres situated between sympathetic chain & visceral organs are called as post ganglionic nerve fibres.
  5. Pre ganglionic nerve fibres are small & post ganglionic are large.
  6. Some post ganglionic nerve fibres originate from ganglionic chain & form cervicle ganglion that sends nerve to iris, lacrymal & salivary.
  7. Some post GNF do not form ganglion but they supply direct to visceral organs such as heart & lung.
  8. Sub ganglions are found in abdominal cavity such as coeliac ganglion, sup. mesentric ganglion & inf. mesentric ganglion.
  9. Nerve fibres of sup. mesenteric ganglion are mainly supply to the excretory organs & partly supply to distal part of alimentary canal.
  10. Nerve fibres of inf. mesenteric ganglion are mainly supplied to the reproductive organ & partly supply to excretory organs.


1389_autonomic nervous system.png

  1. Made up of pera sympathetic ganglion but these ganglion are not connected with each other, they are found in scattered form.
  2. They are situated class to visceral organ so pre ganglionic nerve fibres are long & post ganglionic nerve fibres are small.
  3. These ganglions are connected with 3, 7, 9 & 10 cranial nerves & ramus connunae of sacral part.
  4. 3rd cranial nerve forms cilliary ganglion. 7th cranial nerve forms sub mendibular ganglion.
  5. 9th cranial nerve forms otic ganglion. 10th cranial nerve forms pre ganglionic fibres in the thoracic region & its branches are supply to heart, lungs & different parts of alimentary canal.
  6. Ramus communicanes of sacral part form many ganglions to excretory & reproductive organs.

Note :-

  1. Nerve fibres which secrete the acetylcholine are cholinergic.
  2. Nerve fibres which secrete adrenalin & nor adrenlin are adrenergic.
  3. In sympathetic pre ganglionic nerve fibres are cholinergic & post GNF are adrenergic.
  4. In pera symphathetic both are cholinergic. Action of adrenergic is fast than acetylcholine.
  5. Para symphathetic is more affective in the condition of happiness & at sexual desire.
  6. Sympathetic is more effective in condition of fear, stress, tension, sorrow & excitement (emergency condition).
Posted Date: 10/3/2012 2:05:24 AM | Location : United States

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