a) Given a digraph G = (V,E), prove that if we add a constant k to the length of every arc coming out from the root node r, the shortest path tree remains the same. Do this by using potentials: i) Show there is a potential y* for the new costs for which the paths in the tree to each node v have cost y*v, and ii) explain why this proves it. What is the relationship between the shortest path distances of the modified problem and those of the original problem?
b) Can adding a constant k to the length of every arc coming out from a non-root node produce a change in the shortest path tree? Justify your answer.