Properties of matter, Civil Engineering

Properties of Matter:

  • Due to surface tension, the free surface of a liquid behaves like a stretched elastic membrane tending to contract so as to have minimum surface area. It is measured as the force per unit length perpendicular to an imaginary line on the liquid surface.
  • Pressure is defined as the ratio of the force to the area on which it acts. That is : P = F /A

The fluid pressure at a point within a fluid is given as :

P = h ρ g

  • According to the Pascal's law, pressure applied at any point on the surface of a given mass of an enclosed liquid at rest is transmitted over the whole liquid.
  • Archimedes' principle states in which there is an apparent loss in the weight of a body immersed in a liquid (or gas) and this loss of weight is equal to the weight of the liquid (or gas) displaced by it.
  • An ideal fluid is incompressible and its flow is laminar, non-viscous and irrotational. A flow of liquid is of two types. Those are given below:

(i) Streamline motion, and

(ii) Turbulent motion.

  • An equation of continuity is a consequence of the principle of conservation of mass of liquid and for streamline flow of a liquid is

a1 v1 = a2 v2

where a1 and a2 are the areas of two different cross-sections of a tube of flow and v1 and v2 respectively are the velocities of flow through these sections.

  • The Bernoulli's equation is an expression representing the principle of conservation of energy for liquids. It is expressed as:

P/ ρ + gh + v2/2= constant

  • The property by virtue of which a liquid opposes relative motion between its different layers is called viscosity. It is similar to the frictional force experienced by solids in motion.
  • The property of matter to regain its natural shape and size or to oppose any attempt to deform it is called elasticity.
  • The internal restoring force, arising due to an external deforming force applied on a body, and acting per unit area of cross-section of the body is called stress. The stress may be longitudinal, compressional and shearing.
  • Strain is defined as the change in dimension of a body per unit dimension.

Strains are of three types, namely

(i) Linear strain,

(ii) Volume strain, and

(iii) Shearing strain.

  • Hooke's law states that, within elastic limit, the stress is directly proportional to the corresponding strain.


Posted Date: 1/23/2013 6:15:54 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Properties of matter, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Properties of matter, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Properties of matter Discussions

Write discussion on Properties of matter
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Question What is major disparity between fasteners , bolts and screws ? Answer Fastener is a broad term to explain something that is used as a restraint for holding

Q. What is Portal Cranes? The Portal crane is a hydraulically driven four wheeled machine and is meant for carrying sleepers or track panels. The power for running and working

IS CODES FOR BUILDING DESIGN The codes which help engineers to design buildings are following: 1. IS 456-2000. For the design of plain and reinforced concrete it is code

Question How does an engineer determine digit of cells for concrete box girder bridges ? Answer If depth of a box girder bridge exceeds 1/6 or 1/5 of bridge width, then it is o

Enlongations in solids based on elastic constants

Can I apply for "online assignment help job" for civil engineering,physics & maths etc?

Q. Use of primers in joint sealant? Most of the joint sealants applied in concrete joints are adhesive and recommended joint width/depth of joint sealant is from 2:1 to 1:1 as

Q. Discontinuity of joint – position of bearing? Expansion joints in a bridge structures cater for movements inlongitudinal, transverse, vertical and rotational forms. Layout a

Construction: Construction is usually done by one of the three methods: (a) Manual method, providing steel or wooden forms, pouring concrete and compacting by means of nee

Q. Full bore flow in drainage design? In the design of gravity drainage pipes, full bore flow capacity is usually adopted to check against design runoff. Though one should note