Print vs Return
Here are two different method declarations:
print x + 1 def f2(x):
return x + 1
What happens when we call them?
It looks like they behave in exactly the similar way. But they don't, exactly. Look at this example:
In the case of f1, the function, when calculated, prints 4; then it gives the value None, which is given by the Python file. In the case of f2, it does not give anything, but it gives 4, which is printed by the Python core. Finally, we may look the difference here:
>>> f1(3) + 1
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "", line 1, in ?
TypeError: unsupported operator type(s) for +: 'NoneType' and 'int'
>>> f2(3) + 1
In the ?rst case, the function does not give a value, so there is nothing to include to 1, and an error is created. In the second type, the function gives the value 4, which is included to 1, and the result, 5, is output by the Python read-eval-print loop.
Print is very needful for debugging. It is very important to know that you may print out as many values as you want in one line:
>>> x = 100
>>> print 'x', x, 'x squared', x*x, 'xiv', 14
x 100 x squared 10000 xiv 14
We have also snuck in another data type on you: strings. A string is a sequence of words. You can build a string using single or double quotes; and access individual elements of strings using indexing.
>>> s1 = 'hello world'
>>> s2 = "hello world"
>>> s1 == s2
As you may see, indexing indicates to the extraction of a particular element of a string, by using square brackets [i] where i is a number that identi?es the location of the character that you wish to extract (note that the indexing starts with 0 ).