Bronchoscopy is the passage of lighted bronchoscope into the bronchial tree. Bronchoscopy may be performed with rigid steel of flexible fiberoptic instruments. Bronchoscopy may be performed for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The diagnostic purpose include: 1) Examination of tissue 2) further evaluation of a tumor for potential surgical resection, 3) collection of tissue specimens for diagnosis, and 4) evaluation of bleeding sites. Therapeutic bronchoscopy is used to: 1) remove foreign bodies, 2) remove thick viscous secretions, 3) treat postoperative atelectasis, and 4) destroy and remove lesions.
Explain the procedure to the 'client and family and obtain an informed consent. Instruct the client not to eat or drink anything 6 hours before the test. The client is told that his or her throat may be sore after bronchoscopy, and some initial difficulty in swallowing will be present. Before preprocedural sedation, dentures, contact lenses, and other prostheses are removed. The client undresses and puts on a gown. Local anesthesia and intravenous sedation are used to suppress the cough, and to relieve anxiety. A topical anesthetic is also sprayed into the back of the throat. The test takes 30-45 minutes to complete. During the procedure, the client lies in supine position with the head hyperextended. The nurse monitors vital signs, talks to and reassures the client, and assists the physician a necessary.