Polynephritis in cattle, Biology

Polynephritis in cattle


Contagious bovine polynephritis is a specific infection of urinary tract of cattle. The causative agent is Corynebacterium renale, a rod shaped gram-positive bacteria which occurs in groups and bundles. The organism can be isolated from urine, vagina and male genital tract of healthy cattle. Cattle are seldom affected before maturity and cows appear to be much more susceptible than bulls. Sheep are also occasionally affected.


Transmission: It is thought that infection is not through blood but ascending from urethra and ureters, to the urinary bladder and kidneys. It may be possible that cattle may be symptom less carriers and under favourable conditions infection is established in upper parts of urinary tract. The incidence is highest in females during or immediately after pregnancy.


Symptoms: The first sign observed may be passing of blood-stained urine in an otherwise normal animal. In some animals there is acute colic, fluctuating temperature (39.5°C), capricious appetite, loss of condition or fall in milk yield. The urine contains albumen, red blood cells and pus. Urination may be frequent and painful. There may be apparent recovery followed by remissions. The course of the disease may be several weeks to even months. The terminal signs are uraemia.

Lesions: Polynephritis appears to develop as an ascending infection of urinary bladder, ureters and pelvis of kidney. The kidneys are usually enlarged and lobulation less evident than normal. Necrotic areas may be observed on the surface of pelvis. The ureters may contain blood, pus and mucus. The bladder and urethra are haemorrhagic, oedematous and eroded.Diagnosis: The diagnosis can be made on symptoms and post-mortem lesions.Confirmation is obtained by isolating the causal organism from urine or the lesions.


Treatment:
Several antibiotics inhibit C. renale but penicillin appears to be the drug of choice. In well-established cases where there is extensive tissue damage, the recovery is temporary.


Control: The isolation of affected animals and destruction of infected litter and bedding reduce the bacterial population of the local environment and the opportunity of transmission.

Posted Date: 9/17/2012 7:42:18 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Polynephritis in cattle, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Polynephritis in cattle, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Polynephritis in cattle Discussions

Write discussion on Polynephritis in cattle
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
The DNA replication is a biological procedure which happens in all living organisms and copies their DNA; it is the basis for biological inheritance. The process will starts when o

Define functions of carbohydrate - Protein sparing effect? Carbohydrates help in regulating the protein metabolism. Presence of sufficient carbohydrates to meet energy demands

Tertiary Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) TBHQ is moderately soluble in oil and slightly soluble in water. In many cases, TBHQ is more effective than any other antioxidant in providing

Q. Principal categories in classification? First of all there is a need to know what classification is? Let us define in simple term. Classification is placing of a plant (or g

Q. What is the action mechanism of the antiretroviral drugs known protease inhibitors which are used against HIV infection? Protease inhibitors are some of the antiretroviral d

Dermato phytoses Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is a cosmopolitan, superficial and highly contagious disease of man, animals and birds. The infection is caused by fungi of three g

phylogenetic consideration

Classification in terms of reservoir host 1.  Anthropozoonoses: Infections transmitted from lower vertebrate to man, e.g., rabies, plague, leptospirosis, etc. 2.   Zooanthro

Discuss the role of NADPH in erythrocytes The fragility of erythrocytes  is impaired in the absence of NADPH generation due to the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogena

Define the Water activity - Microbial Survival? It is the amount of water available to the organism. In general, requirement for water activity is more for bacteria (minimum 0.