Phenols :Physical properties:1.Low molecular weight phenols are normally liquids or low melting solids2.Due to H- bonding ,most low molecular weight phenols are water soluble3.Phenols tend to have higher boiling pointings than alchol of similar weight because they have stonger intermolecular H-bondingChemical properties:
Phenols are acidic because of the ease with which the oxygen atom will release the hydrogen bonded to it.This section describes typical reactions that occur as a result of the acidity of phenols.1. Reactions with bases:Because phenol is acidic, it reacts with bases to form salts.2. Esterification of phenol:Phenols form esters with acid anhydrides and acid chlorides.3. Williamson ether synthesis:Ethers are produced from phenol by the Williamson method via an SN mechanism.Reactions of Phenolic Benzene Rings:
The hydroxy froup in a phenol molecule exhibts a strong activating effect on the bengene ring because it provides a ready source of electron density for the ring. This directing influence is so strong that you can often accomplish substitutions on phenolswithout the use of a catalyst.