Physical and chemical properties of phenols? , Chemistry

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Phenols :
Physical properties:
1.Low molecular weight phenols are normally liquids or low melting solids
2.Due to H- bonding ,most low molecular weight phenols are water soluble
3.Phenols tend to have higher boiling pointings than alchol of similar weight because they have stonger intermolecular H-bonding
Chemical properties:

Phenols are acidic because of the ease with which the oxygen atom will release the hydrogen bonded to it.This section describes typical reactions that occur as a result of the acidity of phenols.

1. Reactions with bases:Because phenol is acidic, it reacts with bases to form salts.
2. Esterification of phenol:Phenols form esters with acid anhydrides and acid chlorides.

3. Williamson ether synthesis:Ethers are produced from phenol by the Williamson method via an SN mechanism.

Reactions of Phenolic Benzene Rings:

The hydroxy froup in a phenol molecule exhibts a strong activating effect on the bengene ring because it provides a ready source of electron density for the ring. This directing influence is so strong that you can often accomplish substitutions on phenols
without the use of a catalyst.


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