1) Discuss the implications of stress on the CV system and cancer development.
2) Explain the paradoxical role of the immune system, including the inflammatory response, in tumor development and metastasis.
3) Imagine you are a pathologist. What is the rationale behind immunostaining breast carcinoma or axial lymph node sections for endothelial markers like von Willebrand factor, and for receptors like the estrogen or progesterone receptors? How might increases in all of these affect the carcinogenesis of the tumor?
4) Discuss the role of LDL in atherosclerotic plaque development. Why is it thought to be "bad cholesterol?" Contrast this with the role of HDL in plaque development.
5) Ellen, 79, is experiencing congestive heart failure and is currently in a long term care facility. She is unable to care for her basic needs, although her mind is sharp and she is acutely aware of her surroundings. She is unfamiliar with general medical terminology and certainly doesn't understand CHF. All she knows is that she cannot breathe very well and has little stamina. This causes her tremendous anxiety, as she has, until recently, led a very active life. Having treated Ellen for several years, you know she previously struggled with her weight and was moderately to severely hypertensive. Please explain to Ellen the pathophysiology of her CHF in light of her hypertension. (note: remember your audience here!)
6) Joe has recently experienced a variety of severe neurological deficits and was diagnosed with a malignant tumor which occupied much of what should be the third ventricle and significantly disrupted normal CSF flow through the brain. The pathologist established that the brain tumor was a secondary tumor and further tests were done to determine the tissue of origin. A detailed examination of Joe's medical history revealed that 5 years prior to the diagnosis of the brain tumor, he had a small tumor in his right lung that manifested itself by ectopically producing ACTH. A) Hypothesize why this tumor showed up in the brain as opposed to another organ-be fairly general here, discussing general principles. This portion should include a discussion of some the requirements for tissue invasion and metastasis. B) Explain also what Joe's original tumor likely did to his physiology.
7) Discuss the role of higher brain functions like memory and learning on stress responses.