There are different technologies available for dealing with waste water management and excreta. Some are suitable for dealing off-site sanitation and other can be applied to on-site sanitation.
What is sanitation?
Sanitation refers to excreta and waste water management as well as runoff water and solid and industrial waste. It is the whole range of strategies used to solve problems raised excreta, solid and industrial waste and runoff water. Excluding production and distribution of drinking water. Two main types can be distinguished.
Off site sanitation:
Sanitation which is appropriate for large scale exploitation. Based on technical and economic feasibility studies (sewer network, runoff water drains, etc.)
(a) Definition: on-site sanitation is the whole of actions related to the treatment and disposal of domestic waste water that cannot be carried away by an off-site sanitation system because of low density of population.
(b) Characteristics of on-site sanitation: the autonomous part of on-site sanitation refers to the techniques used (purification of water), its design, as well as its financing implementation and maintenance.
(i) Individual on-site sanitation: hen a house (plot) makes use of soil as a treatment medium (example of soak away, latrines, etc.)
(ii) Grouped on-site sanitation (semi off -site sanitation): when many individual houses are linked to a network leading to a treatment system.
On- site sanitation toilets:
They are located normally outside the house or building, destined to receive and store excreta and sometimes, to process it. This type of sanitation protects sensitive species of aquatic fauna by avoiding discharge concentration in small water ways. Besides it is cheaper than off-site sanitation since the construction of treatment plant is not required.