National health service systems, Biology

National Health Service Systems

Systems established under the national health service have three main features. First, their primary funding comes from general revenues. Second, they provide medical coverage to the country’s entire population. Third, their services are delivered through a network of public providers. In many low and middle income countries such system exists alongside that of other risk pooling arrangements. Thus, they are not the sole source of coverage for the entire population. The features of national health services give them the potential to be equitable and efficient. Their wider coverage means that risks are also pooled broadly, without the dangers of risk selection inherent in other fragmented systems. Their efficiency potential arises from the fact that they are integrated under government control and have less potential for the high transaction costs that arise from multiple players. But when power and responsibility is decentralised with local authorities, coordination problems can ensue. Whether public provision is more efficient, equitable, and sustainable than private provision is a question not of ownership but of the underlying delivery structures and incentives facing the providers and consumers. Thus, although national health service systems have the theoretical benefit of providing health care to the entire population free of charge (except for any applicable user fees), the reality could be different. For instance, reliance on general government budgets is vulnerable to the vicissitudes of annual budget discussions and changes in political priorities.

In most low-income developing countries, public health spending as a share of the budget is low. Further, health services in many low and middle income countries are primarily used by middle and high income households in urban areas because of access problems for the rural poor. Also, the poor tend to use less expensive local primary care facilities due to the costs involved in accessing the public facilities. For exactly the opposite reasons, the rich tend to disproportionately use more of the expensive hospital services of the public sector. Public provision of health services also face problems of corruption and inefficiencies caused by budgets that do not generate the appropriate incentives and accountability. To exploit the potential strengths of national health service systems it is, therefore, important for developing countries to improve the capacity to raise revenue, the quality of governance and institutions, and the ability to maintain the universal coverage and reach of the system. It is also important to take specific measures to target spending to the poor, such as by increasing the budgetary allocation for primary care. But the system must not neglect the needs of the middle and high-income populations (as they are capable of influencing the political support). They can also opt for privately financed system at the expense of supporting the public system.

 

Posted Date: 12/17/2012 1:24:13 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- National health service systems, Assignment Help, Ask Question on National health service systems, Get Answer, Expert's Help, National health service systems Discussions

Write discussion on National health service systems
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Prostaglandins and the structurally associated molecules prostacyclins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, are called as eicosanoids because they having 20 carbon atoms. These hormones

Explain about the Spinal Trauma? Spinal trauma or spinal cord injury, commonly clue to accidents, fills, sports injury can result in serious disabling consequences. The spinal

It is the most common (occurring in 75 per cent cases of ARF) manifestation of ARF. It involves large joints, it is typically fleeting in character shifting from one large joint t

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

How many times more acidic is a pH=4 from a pH=7 solution?

What is the Objectives of Neuropsychological assessment?   Define and describe neuropsychological assessment; Elucidate the neuropsychological methodology for assessing i

Insulin was the first protein to be sequenced biochemically. Assuming that there were no introns involved in the process, what are the possible DNA sequences that produced the last

Direction of Energy Flow Now let us consider the first point that is the direction of flow of energy. Energy flows from lower (producer) to higher (herbivore, carnivore, etc.)

Care of Psychoemotional Aspects ICU area is an area which is cut off from outside world. Modem ICUs are built in such a way that the sensory deprivation is reduced. Ta

Tasks of  Orientation Phase: Establishing contact with the patient  Developing  the pactlcontract  Talking to the patient  Establishing Contact with the Patient