Unlike fiscal policy, monetary policy is set by unelected officials. A group of economists is appointed by the executive branch and confirmed by the Senate to serve on the Federal Reserve Board, also known as the Fed. The central bank of the United States is thus quasi-independent from political influence and does not favor one political agenda over another.
The Federal Reserve has regular meetings to discuss the future direction of the economy. Various economic factors like inflation, unemployment, and consumer spending are considered at each meeting. The Fed must then arrive at a set of optimal policy decisions to guide the economy on a path of low inflation and positive economic growth. This is not an easy task because the economic factors are often contradictory.