We can record the sum total of the medieval achievement in the natural sciences in a few lines. It can be put down as a few notes on natural history and minerals, a treatise on sporting birds, such as falcons, hawks etc., some improvements in Ibn al-Haitham's optics and some criticism of Aristotle's ideas. In mathematics and astronomy, the Arabic algebra and Indian numerals were introduced and Ptolemy's Almagest was translated. The medieval European astronomers could not go much beyond the Arab contribution in observational astronomy although they added a few details. They made some contribution to trigonometry and the construction of instruments. However, there was no radical revision of astronomy. Robert Growteste ( 1168-1 2531), a Bishop and Chancellor of Oxford University, was a leading scientist of the Middle Ages. He thought of science as a means of illustrating theological truths. He experimented with light and thought of it as divine illumination. There were many other such 'scientists' in the Middle Ages. Those who questioned the prevalent religious beliefs, were likely to be prosecuted for heresy! Even the idea that man could reach God directly without intermediaries, such as priests, was considered a heresy. The Middle Ages were an era of faith and of regimented thinking. The feudal society in its social, economic and intellectual character was again a stagnant society. The limired contribution of medieval xience under such conditions is understandable. It is, indeed, unfair to expect more of such a xience than what was demanded from it in its time! However, the feudal society was definitely on a higher technical level than the slave society of the Iron Age. In fact, the impetus to technical innovations had existed from the beginning of the Middle Ages. This arose from the need for better use of land. It was here that the peasant and the workman could use and improve the classical techniques. For most of the Middle Ages there was a chronic labour shortage with the labour force of slaves no longer available and with the expansion of cultivable land in the countryside. Thus, human labour was sought to be substituted by mechanical means; manpower shortage led to the use of animal, wind and water-power. Thus, we find that many technical developments took place in medieval Europe though most of them seem to have come from the East, especially from China.