Lungs - Respiration
Lungs can be simple, characterised by air exchange with surrounding environment by diffusion only. These are called the diffusion lungs and are present in small animals such as pulmonate snails, small scorpions, sane spiders and some isopods. The other type - ventilation lungs are typical of vertebrates.
Figure: Breathing Cycle in Frogs
The air passes through a tube into inflatable lungs where gas exchange takes place and oxygen poor, carbon dioxide rich air is then forced out usually through the same tube. This is known as tidal flow of air. Ventilation of the lungs can take place in two different ways:
1) By using a pressure pump as in amphibians. Figure shows the process of ventilation in frog. The inflation of lungs depends on positive pressure bucco pharengeal pump. The nares remain open while glottis is closed (the air does not enters the lungs). The floor of the buccal cavity is raised and lowered periodically. At irregular intervals the glottis is open and nares are closed. The floor of the buccal cavity is raised forcing air into the lungs. As a result the frog can take in air several times without exhaling and blow itself up to considerable size. The glottis can close and while the air remains inside the lungs the cycle is replated in the buccal cavity.
2) By using a suction pump. Exhalation can be passive and inhalation is aided by muscle contraction or as in mammals, by contraction of muscular dome shaped diaphragm and external intercostal muscles lifting the ribcage. This decreases the pressure in the pleural space so causing the lungs to expand and air flows in.