Horse diseases-equine influenza, Biology

Equine influenza


Equine influenza is a highly contagious, epizootic disease, which affects equines of all age groups and is caused by influenza virus A/equine virus of family Orthomyxoviridae. The disease is characterized by sudden onset of cough and rapid spread of the disease. Influenza A/equine-1 (H7N7) or Influenza A/equine-2 (H3N8), RNA virus of family Orthomyxoviridae (RNA) are causative agents of this disease. Equine influenza virus A (EIV-A)/ equine 2 (H3N8) is the main strain causing the disease. Historically, EIV-A/ equine 1 has caused disease but for more than 20 years, it has not been reported. A major outbreak of equine influenza caused by Influenza A- Equi-2 virus (H3N8) was reported in India during 1987 and it re-emerged in 2008 after a gap of 21 years.


Epidemiology and transmission: The disease is transmitted by direct contact and inhalation of virus with infected materials. Fomite transfer, viz, veterinary clothing, equipment, vehicle from infected shed to healthy shed spread the disease. Aerosol spread occurs up to a distance of 35 meters. Housing of infected horses with healthy horses leads to rapid spread of this disease. Frequent coughing by infected horses produce infectious aerosols spreading the infection to healthy animals resulting in a highly explosive outbreak.


Clinical signs:
The disease starts with fever (38.5-410C, 101-1060C). The main symptom is dry and hacking cough in the beginning that become moist later. The temperature lasts for 1-3 weeks. Watery nasal discharge may be seen in the early stage.  Secondary bacterial complications are common, which lead to mucopurulent nasal discharge, persistent fever and abnormal lung sound.


Diagnosis: Diagnosis of EIV-A infection is based on virus isolation from nasal swabs, and/or by serology. Demonstration of seroconversion a  3- to 4- fold increase in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titre in paired serum samples collected on the day of onset of infection and then on 14-21 days provides confirmation of diagnosis. In single radial haemolysis test, two-fold increases in antibody titre in paired serum samples gives confirmatory diagnosis of EIV-A infection in horses. The EIV-A antigen can also be detected in nasal swab of infected horses by enzyme- linked immunosorbent   assay (ELISA) and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).


Prevention and control:
There is no specific treatment. Affected animals should be given easily digestible food, housed in well-ventilated stalls and protected from cold wind. . Horses should be vaccinated with EIV-A killed vaccine. However, the immunity of the vaccine is of short duration. Hence, horses should be given booster immunization at interval of 4-6 months. At the onset of the disease, identify the infected horses and get the disease confirmed by laboratory testing. Segregate the infected horses. No new horse should be introduced in the stud farm during an outbreak and horses should also not to be allowed to leave until the outbreak is over.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 7:54:43 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Horse diseases-equine influenza, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Horse diseases-equine influenza, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Horse diseases-equine influenza Discussions

Write discussion on Horse diseases-equine influenza
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What is the chemical equation of photosynthesis? The chemical equation of photosynthesis is the following: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + light --> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

Define Non-Dietary Treatment of Burns? While good nutritional care should be provided to the patient as soon as feasible it is equally imperative and at times critical to provi

Transfer RNA molecules are notable for having generally nucleotides shown in the figure such as 1-methylguanosine (m1G), pseudouridine   (Ψ), dihydrouridine   (D), inosine (I) and

Of which type of tissue are cartilages and bones made? Are the cells of the connective tissue far or near to the others? The relative great spacing among cells is a typical

What is recombination frequency? The Recombination frequency, or crossing over rate, is the percentage of recombinant gametes made by crossing over (in relation to the number o

Q. What is the function of the pupil and of the iris? The iris works like the diaphragm of a photographic camera since it has muscles that relax or contract varying the pupil d

diagram of phyllum protozoa

Ensure proper diet to Control Protein Energy Malnutrition? PEM is preventable. It is a disease of the poor and the ignorant that suffer from social inequalities. Therefore, a h

What are nutritional issues related to neurological disorders? Nutritional management of the patients with neurological disease is complex, as mechanisms and abilities needed f

Q. List principles to keep in mind for designing the messages? o Develop a positive theme. Approaches are more effective when they promote positive messages that state clear