Fate of Blastopore
Cleavage results in the formation of a ball of cells called morula (resembling mulberry hence the name). A space appears in the morula changing it to a hollow blastula. The central cavity is called the blastocoel and the layers of cells surrounding it the blastoderm. Invagination or infolding of the blastoderm gives rise to a double walled gastrula. The cavity of this double walled cup is called archenteron and the opening of the archenteron to the outside is called the blastopore.
Figure: Early embryology of a nemertean worm a protostome
As the gastrula develops further, 'parts of the embryo give rise to different structures to ultimately form a complete young one. In platyhelminths, nematodes, annelids, arthropods and molluscs that have spiral cleavage, the embryonic blastopore forms the mouth of the animal and the anus is formed secondarily. Because the mouth forms first these animals are included in 'Protostomia' (mouth first) division of Animal Kingdom. In echinoderms, chaetognaths, hemichordates and chordates where radial cleavage takes place, the blastopore forms the anus of the animal and the mouth is formed secondarily, as an independent opening on the body wall as seen in Figure. Therefore, these animals are included in 'Deuterostomia' (mouth second), division of the Animal Kingdom.
The fate of the blastopore thus determines two fundamental lines of evolution. The protostomes in which the cleavage is generally mosaic (determinate and spiral) and the Deuterostomes in which the cleavage is usually regulative (radial and indeterminate) type.