Explain the role of bones in human biology, Biology

Assignment Help:

Explain the role of Bones in human biology?

Bone is covered by a tough outer membrane called the periosteum. The periosteum contains systems of capillaries that supply the bone cells with minerals, nutrients, and gases, and removes metabolic wastes.

Mature bone consists of about 30%-40% organic material, and 60% to 70% complex calcium phosphates and other salts. The organic matter in bone is made up mostly of collagen fibers, which help to strengthen the bone. Living bone cells called osteocytes inhabit the spaces between the mineral tubular structures.

The structure of bones varies with function. The long bones of the arms and legs, for instance, are mainly composed of hard material called compact bone. These bones contain mineral crystals interspersed with protein fibers. Compact bone is composed of tubular units called Haversian systems. A Haversian system consists of a central opening called a Haversian canal, a channel or conduit for blood vessels and nerves, surrounded by a tubular unit of compact bone.

An irregular network of mineralized spongy bone is found in the hollow interior of compact bone. Red bone marrow, which manufactures red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and antibodies is found in the spongy bone at the ends of the long bones, and in the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and pelvis.

The long bones serve as a reserve source of calcium. A drop in blood calcium level stimulates the parathyroid gland to produce a hormone which causes the release of calcium from the bones to make up the deficit. If the blood calcium rises, the hormone calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid, stimulates the deposition of calcium, and consequent removal from the blood. The large central cavity in the long bones contains yellow bone marrow, which is mostly fat, and stores energy.

Bone is continually built up and broken down. It is subject to molding by external stresses and strains. This property makes possible the manipulation of tooth sockets by orthodontists, for instance.


Related Discussions:- Explain the role of bones in human biology

What do you mean by insect control, Q. What do you mean by Insect control? ...

Q. What do you mean by Insect control? The insects can breed and hide in garbage and other places where there is availability of waste materials. The cockroach lives and breed

Explain ancient greeks and romans - plant classification, Explain History o...

Explain History of Plant Classification - Ancient Greeks and Romans? Hippocrates, "The Father of Medicine" (460-377 B.C.) is reputed to have been one of Democritus 's disciples

How do arthropods grow, Q. How do arthropods grow? Due to the presence ...

Q. How do arthropods grow? Due to the presence of exoskeleton the growth of an arthropod is periodical during the growth period the animal loses the exoskeleton, develops and g

Wigs and hairs - seed appendages, Wigs and hairs - Seed Appendages Se...

Wigs and hairs - Seed Appendages Seeds of certain plants have epidermal outgrowths or the integuments themselves may form folds and projections that present a wing-like appea

Explain the taxonomic concepts, Q. Explain the taxonomic concepts? The ...

Q. Explain the taxonomic concepts? The history of classification is an exciting aspect of plant taxonomy. The discovery of the use of plants for food and later as medicine bega

Explain the physiology of lactation, Explain the Physiology of Lactation? ...

Explain the Physiology of Lactation? Lactogenesis is the onset of copious milk secretion around parturition, triggered by a fall in plasma progesterone levels. Although some co

Symptoms and signs of diabetes mellitus, Symptoms refer to the problems exp...

Symptoms refer to the problems expressed by the patients. Signs are obtained by a health professional from the patients by interacting with him, by conducting tests, etc. The sympt

Theory of embryology - germ plasm theory, GER M PLASM THEORY - It w...

GER M PLASM THEORY - It was proposed by Weismann. According to it, two types of cells are formed during embryonic development viz - Germ cell & Somatic cell. The germ ce

What units are the nucleic acids constituted, Q. Of what units are the nucl...

Q. Of what units are the nucleic acids constituted? What are chemical entities that compose that unit? The Nucleic acids are formed by sequences of nucleotides. Nucleotides

Respiratory system, describe the structure of a lung in terms of covering m...

describe the structure of a lung in terms of covering membranes and cavities

Write Your Message!

Captcha
Free Assignment Quote

Assured A++ Grade

Get guaranteed satisfaction & time on delivery in every assignment order you paid with us! We ensure premium quality solution document along with free turntin report!

All rights reserved! Copyrights ©2019-2020 ExpertsMind IT Educational Pvt Ltd