Explain systemic circulation in human biology, Biology

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Explain Systemic Circulation in human biology?

In systemic circulation, oxygenated blood is pumped from the left atrium through the bicuspid valve, into the left ventricle, and from there throughout the body. Because the left ventricle is responsible for circulation to most of the body, it must exert a much greater force than the right ventricle, which pumps blood to only the lungs. Thus the muscular wall of the left ventricle is six times thicker than that of the right ventricle.

The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood through the aortic valve into the large blood vessel called the aorta. The aorta divides into many branch arteries: the carotid artery leading to the head, the coronary arteries that supply the heart, and other major arteries that feed all of the other organs of the body. This begins the circulation of oxygen-rich red blood cells through the body. Aortic valves and pulmonary valves are also called semilunar valves (from the Latin meaning "half-moon").

In the capillaries, oxygen diffuses from the blood into the surrounding cells, in exchange for carbon dioxide waste. The oxygen-depleted blood flows through the capillaries, which join to form venules, and finally veins, and into the collecting vessels known as the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava before entering the right atrium of the heart.

 


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