explain Modern architecture of microprocessor, Basic Computer Science

There are many other techniques in which companies who manufacture microprocessors have attempted to get better the performance of their CPUs.
Cache memory
this is a small quantity of high-speed memory used specifically as a fast and effectual method of storage for generally used instructions. Most programs finish up accessing the same data and instructions over and over again at a few points in their execution. Placing these in higher speed storage, for instance a cache, provides a great improvement in the time taken for processing over continual accessing from the main memory at a slower speed.
Home computer processors usually have implemented the cache directly into their architecture, in what is recognized as a ''Level 1'' cache. The most modern CPUs also use external caches, which are referred to as ''Level 2'' cache and much larger in size than ''Level 1'' caches. More current processors have larger caches - for instance, the Intel 486 had a cache of only eight kilobytes, while the Pentium II used multiple stores totaling up to two megabytes of storage space.
Specialized instruction set extensions
the most generally known extensions to the traditional CPU instruction set are Intel''s MMX and AMD''s 3DNow Technology. These both come into use when the processor is asked to perform operations connecting graphics, audio and video, and contain a number of specific instructions which are specialized to perform the short repetitive tasks that make up the great majority of multimedia processing. These extensions use SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instructions in order to greatly reduce the time taken; by itself instructions perform their operations to multiple pieces of data at the same time.
MMX makes use of fifty-seven SIMD instructions, while the Pentium 4 raises this number to one hundred and forty-four. This includes additional extensions to improve operations relating to internet-related activity, such as the streaming of music and video files. The improved 3DNow! Technology found in the AMD Athlon processor also contains SIMD instructions for this purpose. Such extensions eventually enhance the performance of the processor in activities involving to multimedia applications, gaming, and use of the internet and other forms of contact.
Hyper threading is a new technology, brought up by Intel with their most current Pentium 4 processors. It works by using what is identified as ''simultaneous multithreading'' to make the single processor come out to the computer operating system as multiple logical processors. This enables the CPU via use of shared hardware resources to execute multiple separate parts of a program (or ''threads'') at the same time.
This technology does not give the same performance increase as actual separate processors would do, but gives a considerable boost for less cost and power consumption than said multiple processors would need. Current processors for example the aforementioned Pentium 4 currently split the CPU into two logical processors. Intel is at present working on additional advancements which will enable splitting higher numbers of threads to be simultaneously executed.
This concludes the part of the further features of the more modern microprocessor.
Posted Date: 5/3/2012 9:15:48 AM | Location : United States

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