Effects of Global warming
ñ Alterations in the Global Precipitation:
A more warm atmosphere will contribute to enhanced evaporation from surface waters and leads to the more eminent amounts of precipitation. The equatorial regions will be wetter than present, while the inner portions of continents will become warm and dry as compared to the that of the present.
ñ Alterations in the pattern of vegetation:
Due to the rainfall distributed in different manner, vegetation will have to adapt to the fresh conditions. Mid latitude regions are probably to be more drought prone, while more prominent latitude regions will be reasonably wetter and warmer than normal, leading to the shift in the patterns of the agriculture.
ñ Increased storminess:
A wetter and warmer atmosphere will prefer tropical storm growth. Hurricanes will be more frequent and stronger.
ñ Alterations in Ice patterns:
Due to more prominent temperatures, ice in mountain ice mass will melt. Since since more water will be vaporized from the oceans, more precipitation will extend to the polar ice sheets inducing them to develop.
ñ Reduction of sea ice:
Sea ice will be reduced to an extraordinary extent and the raised temperatures at the high latitudes, specifically in the northern hemisphere where there is more abundant sea ice. Ice has a high albedo and therefore reduction of ice will decrease the albedo of the earth and solar radiation will be reflected to a lesser extent back into space, hence raising the warming effect.
ñ Melting of frozen ground - Presently much of the ground at high latitudes continues frozen all year. Higher temperatures will force much of this ground to thaw. Gas hydrates and organic compounds in the frozen ground will be matter to decay, decomposing more methane into the atmosphere and increasing the greenhouse effect. Human structures and ecosystems presently built on frozen ground will have to conform.
ñ Rise of sea level - Warming the oceans effects in expansion of water and hence raises the volume of water in the oceans. Along with thawing of mountain glaciers and reduction in sea ice, this will result sea level to go up and flood coastal zones where much of the world's population now resides.
ñ Alteration in the hydrologic cycle - With new patterns of precipitation alteration in groundwater level and stream flow will be expected.
ñ Decomposition of organic matter in soil - With high temperatures of the atmosphere the rate of decomposition of organic material in soils will be greatly stimulated. This will effect in release of methane and CO2 into the atmosphere and raises the greenhouse effect
Global Warming in the Past
From the study of glaciations in the past it is experience that climate can change as the effect of natural processes, both becoming colder and warmer than present. While these climatic variations seem to be caused by eccentricities in the earth's orbit, it is exciting to note that throughout glaciations in the past the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere were let down, atmospheric dust and the earth's albedo was more eminent, all of these components could have led to cooler climates. Likewise, throughout past interglacial episodes, the atmosphere carried less dust, the earth had a lower albedo and more eminent concentrations of greenhouse gases, all of which led to warmer climates. The doubts that remain to be answered are:
ñ Are there more eminent greenhouse gases concentrations and lower concentrations of dust in the atmosphere due to the warmer temperatures or did they cause the warmer temperatures?
ñ Are these deviations simply due to orbital fluctuations or is there some other natural self regulating process that appropriates for cycles?
Carbon monoxide has an indirect radiative results by lifting concentrations of methane and tropospheric ozone via scavenging of atmospheric constituents (for example, the hydroxyl radical, OH) that would otherwise ruin them. Carbon monoxide is formed when carbon-containing fuels are combusted incompletely via natural processes in the atmosphere, it is finally oxidized to carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide has an atmospheric lifespan of only a few months and as a result is spatially more adaptable than longer-lived gases.
In Antarctica and the release of heat from the earth result the ice to melt. Tons of CO2 which are put in withing the sub-layers are decomposed into the atmosphere causing more air pollution. The internal energy of the earth is effect by the fission of Uranium .
Breaks via digestion of food, IE wood cause natural gas to get away into the atmosphere causing a cloud layer. The chemical reaction here is the oxidization of their wood food and a by product expulsion of hydrogen or carbon gas that comes in the atmosphere and remain around for centuries. Termites are a major source of atmospheric pollution that results in the global warming.
Cows are another major polluter of the atmosphere. Gas from the animals works about the same mode as termite pollution including the same equations in chemistry. So enhancing more cows to feed growing number of humans leads to air pollution.
Sunspots also leads to Global Warming. The sun energy which reaches the earth is in the form of extra radiation IE more than normal. It is due to coalition of two nuclei of Hydrogen into Helium and a release of mass.
Incidentally, combusting of wood and the decomposition of dead things does not contribute to global warming. First, the trees grow to produce wood, the process is to pull out CARBON from the atmosphere, so burning of the wood by re oxidation nets a ZERO in carbon production. This is true of dead things that once were alive, the overall net for those is also ZERO.
Thus by growing soybeans or corn and creating alcohol from it and burning that in cars is in the short run a net of ZERO on carbon emission. A major source of air and water pollution is the exposed coal mines of Pennsylvania. Sulfur from the exposed mine is oxidized by organisms to SO3 and SO2, the SO3 enters the streams and reflects acidic water conditions.
It is true on fossil fuels, since those are keep for billions of years in the form of hydrogen and carbon. Oxidizing those does led to present atmosphere pollution. Earth is shielded from UV rays by ozone O3. It is mainly a free radical chemical reaction which absorbs UV energy. Some compounds develop at ground level, CFC's in the past some, NO. Some sulfur compounds can get up into the stratosphere and interpose with this reaction causing in less ozone being formed letting in more UV light which heats the earth producing global warming. The CO2 is a element since it traps heat so once the raised UV light is modified to heat at ground level it gets trapped thus hot air just goes around the green house effect.
The SO2 play an important role in the global warming, also volcanoes create most of the greenhouse gases .
The antagonists of global warming indicate that the melting of polar ice caps would lead to cloud formulation circularizing the cooling and heating the earth with more rain. But ice core samples taken from the antarctic whose geological dating is about before millions/thousands of years proved this hypothesis incorrect the earth has never experienced CO2 on this level and antarctic ice traps CO2 rendering a historic track record as every layer of ice frozen.
If carbon dioxide emissions were confined constant at the level of today, atmospheric concentrations are assumed to extend to increase for at least two centuries.
Fundamental procedures in the carbon cycle comprise:
ñ Release of carbon dioxide from the fossil fuel to the atmosphere.
ñ The exchange of carbon dioxide among the ocean and the atmosphere.
ñ Transfer of carbon dioxide from the surface waters to the midland of the ocean and accompanying long-term storage in the bottom deposits of the deep ocean.
ñ The final release of carbon dioxide from alterations in agriculture and deforestation.
ñ The photosynthetic consumption of carbon dioxide by land plants and transport of their carbon into intermediate term of reposition in soils and wood.
Greenhouse gases incline to assimilate radiation while clouds incline to reflect or scatter the radiation. As a consequence, clouds act a crucial part in the radiation equilibrium for the earth. A recent theory hinted that the geological formation of clouds is based on the aerosol particles that are developed from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is created not only from the combustion of fuels containing sulfur, but also from the oxidation of biogenically created sulfur compounds. Dimethyl sulfide is created by number of various species of being all over the oceans. This extends the possibility of a prominent flow of dimethyl sulfide from ocean to atmosphere where a significant component can be oxidized to create sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is further oxidized, but this oxidation is a complex process which takes place along with various pathways. Only one of these leads to the formulation of the aerosol particles needed for the formation of clouds.
Ammonia plays a prominent role in the formulation of aerosol particles from oxidation of sulfur dioxide. Quantifying gaseous ammonia in the marine atmosphere is hard. Thus, atmospheric ammonia concentrations are not well qualified. AOML is presently testing a scheme that will be applied to determine ambient amounts of gaseous ammonia in the marine atmosphere. With this data, better approximations of the amount of aerosol particles brought forth as a outcome of oxidation of sulfur dioxide can be done. This data will raises the accuracy of paired ocean atmosphere climate models.
The impacts of halocarbons on the radiation balance of the earth are double. These are:
a) The chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and their hydrochlorfluorocarbon (HCFC) substitutes are strong infrared (IR) absorbers. This, along with any other IR absorber, would incline to contribute toward global warming.
b) These trace gases destruct ozone in the stratosphere and cause a substantial radioactivity in the opposite direction i.e. cooling. The decrease in ozone may also have some other impacts in that tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations should raise in the presence of increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generally assimilated by stratospheric ozone. An increment in tropospheric OH also has a net cooling effect.
The power of a trace gas to induce global warming is discovered by its Global Warming Potential (GWP) and the power of a gas to destruct ozone is ascertained by its Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). Both the ODP and the GWP for a trace gas are procedures of the atmospheric lifespan of the gas along with their power to assimilate IR radiation and responsiveness in the stratosphere. The lifespan of a trace gas is a procedure of the sink intensities for the gas. For those trace gases that are exclusively anthropogenic and respond only in the stratosphere, the computation of lifespan is simple. In whatever way, there are a numerous reactive halo carbons that have natural oceanic and terrestrial sources and sinks in add-on to their anthropogenic sources. The complex trait of these sources and their distributions makes it hard to compute the atmospheric lifespans for these gases.