Disorders of lower respiratory tract, Biology

DISORDERS OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT:

The lower respiratory  tract infections  tend to occur most frequently in young children who have not developed resistance  to infectious disease. These problems may be diagnosed  in children of all ages. These  infections  include, brochiolitis bronchitis and pneumonia. We shall begin with bronchiotitis. 

Bronchiolitis

It is common in  infants under the age of six months. It is a serious  illness characterized by inflammation of bronchioles  causing  severe dyspnea  due  to obstruction to bronchioles. It is more or less confined to winter and early spring 

Etiology 

The exact cause is not clear but the etiological agent may be virus such as respiratory syncytical  virus, adenovirus  and influenza virus 

Signs and Symptoms 

There may be sudden severe dyspnea (rapid shallow breathing) following  a mild upper  respiratory infection  (URI),  fever, air hunger, cyanosis, respiratory acidosis and dehydration 

Diagnostic Evaluation 

Clinical presentation and good chest X-ray examination can be help to diagnosis  the brochiolitis. 

Management 

It is an emergency situation and the management is mostly symptomatic. Antibiotics may be given to prevent secondary infection.

Posted Date: 10/26/2012 8:01:54 AM | Location : United States







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