DISORDERS OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT:
The lower respiratory tract infections tend to occur most frequently in young children who have not developed resistance to infectious disease. These problems may be diagnosed in children of all ages. These infections include, brochiolitis bronchitis and pneumonia. We shall begin with bronchiotitis.
It is common in infants under the age of six months. It is a serious illness characterized by inflammation of bronchioles causing severe dyspnea due to obstruction to bronchioles. It is more or less confined to winter and early spring
The exact cause is not clear but the etiological agent may be virus such as respiratory syncytical virus, adenovirus and influenza virus
Signs and Symptoms
There may be sudden severe dyspnea (rapid shallow breathing) following a mild upper respiratory infection (URI), fever, air hunger, cyanosis, respiratory acidosis and dehydration
Clinical presentation and good chest X-ray examination can be help to diagnosis the brochiolitis.
It is an emergency situation and the management is mostly symptomatic. Antibiotics may be given to prevent secondary infection.