Difference between the open and closed systems, Mechanical Engineering

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Provide short answers to the following questions:

a)   What the necessary condition for a heat transfer process to occur?

b)   What is a difference between the steady state conditions and the thermal equilibrium state?

c)   Is it possible for the steady state temperature profile in a plane wall to be nonlinear at steady state? If yes, provide one example.

d)   Why do you feel cooler during a windy day than during a calm day even though the air temperature is the same?

e)   Why it is more likely to get burn by putting a bare hand into boiling water at 100oC then into hot air at 200oC?

f)   What is a temperature gradient within an object sitting in a room in which the temperature is maintained constant after a sufficiently long time?

g)   Is it possible that the surface temperature of the object from part f) to be different than the room air temperature? If yes, please explain why?

h)   What is the primary reason for a ground frost (air temperature is greater than zero)? For a given air temperature, is ground frost more likely to occur at windy or calm conditions?

i)    What is a difference between and opaque and semitransparent object?

j)    What is the primary reason for the surfaces of different objects to be different when they exposed to sunlight?

k)   What is the difference between the open and closed systems?

l)    What is the inherent difference between application of conservation of energy over a time interval and at an instant of time?

m)  Why the form of the energy balance for a surface of an object at steady and unsteady state conditions is the same?

n)   What is the primary reason irreversible operation of the actual heat engines?

o)   What is the effect of the power output of the actual heat engine on its efficiency? Please explain.


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