Describes the several relationship constraints, Database Management System

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Describes the several relationship constraints through giving suitable example?

Constraints on relationships: There are two kinds of constraints on relationships.

1) Mapping cardinalities or cardinality ratios express the number of entities to that another entity can be associated through a relationship set. For a binary relationship set among entities A and B. The mapping cardinality may be any one of the subsequent:

a) One to One: An entity in A is related along with at most one entity in B and an entity in B is related with at most one entity in A.
b) One to Many: An entity in A can be related with any number in B but an entity in B is associated with at most one in A.
c) Many to one: An entity in A is related with at most one in B but an entity in B is associated with any number in A.
d) Many to Many: An entity in A and B can be associated along with any number of entities in the other entity set.

2) Participation constraints: The participation of an entity set E in a relationship set R is said to be total if every entity in E participates within at least one relationship in R. If only a few entities in E participation of entity set E in relationship R is said to be partial.


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