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Data theory is anxious with how observations are transformed into data which can be analyzed. Data are thus viewed as the theory laden in the sense that the observations can be given generally diverse interpretations, niether of which are necessitated by the observations themselves.

#### Causality, Causality: The relating of the reasons to the effects they prod...

Causality: The relating of the reasons to the effects they produce. Several investigations in medicine seek to establish the causal relations between the events, for instance, whi

#### Identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions, You have probably noti...

You have probably noticed by now that some of the statements of necessary and sufficient conditions sound more natural than others. For example it seems more natural to express "We

#### Explain normal approximation, Normal approximation : Normal distributions w...

Normal approximation : Normal distributions which approximate other distributions; such as, a normal distribution with the mean np and variance np(1 - p) which acts as an approxima

#### Whats your best offer, how do you do this project

how do you do this project

#### Develop the equations to calculate the flow rates, A two-step distillation ...

A two-step distillation and mixing process is shown in the figure. The system operates at steady-state conditions and there are no chemical reactions. The known flow rates and comp

#### Advanced managerial statistics, The objective of this assignment is to test...

The objective of this assignment is to test your understanding in the learning outcome (LO2) and learning outcome (LO3) and learning outcome (LO4). 1) This is a grouped assignme

#### Basic reproduction number, Basic reproduction number : A term used in the t...

Basic reproduction number : A term used in the theory of infectious diseases for the number of secondary cases which one case would generate in a completely susceptible population.

#### Bartlett decomposition, Bartlett decomposition : The expression for the ra...

Bartlett decomposition : The expression for the random matrix A which has a Wishart distribution as the product of the triangular matrix and the transpose of it. Letting each of x

#### Outlier, Outlier is an observation which seems to deviate markedly from th...

Outlier is an observation which seems to deviate markedly from the other members of the sample in which it happens. In the set of systolic blood pressures, {125, 128, 130, 131, 19

#### Cycle plot, The graphical method for studying the behavior of the seasonal ...

The graphical method for studying the behavior of the seasonal time series. In such a plot, the January values of seasonal component are graphed for the upcoming years, then the  