Controlling material flow
Figure below outlines the progressive stages in purchasing, issuing and recording materials in a manufacturing concern. An efficient system of documenting and recording is vitally necessary, not only for accounting purposes, but to ensure that the right materials arrive at the right place at the right time.
The purchase requisition submitted to the buyer may be triggered automatically if the system is computerized, by a message from the stores ledger that the reorder level has been reached. Other requests to purchase may be raised by the production planning department for new product materials not yet carried in stock, and also by any departmental head for supplies and equipment of any kind.
The buyer, ideally after making enquiries of several suppliers, sends a purchase order, and eventually the material is received, checked by the good-inwards department as to quality and quantity, and is detailed on a goods-received note (GRN). One copy of the GRN goes to the buyer to write off the outstanding order record; one to the accounts department for checking against the order and invoice—the latter authorizing payment to the supplier; and one to the stores department with the materials.