Connection establishment - tcp connection management, Computer Networking

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Connection Establishment

TCP transmits  data in full duplex mode. When two TCP is two machines are  connected they are able  to send segments to each other simultaneously. This  implies that  each party  must  initialize  communication and get approval  from the  other party before  any data  are transferred.

Three  way handshaking. The connection establishment in TCP is called  three way  handshaking. In our example  an application program called the client  wants to make a connection with other application program  called  the server using TCP as the  transport layer protocols.

The  process  starts with  server. The  programs tells  its TCP that it is  ready to  accept a connection. This is called  a request for a  passive open. Although  the server  TCP ready  to accept any connection from  any machine in  the world it can make  the connection itself.

The client  program issues  a request for  an active open. If client  that  wishes to connect  to an open  server tells  its TCP that it  needs to be  connected to that  particular server TCP can now  start the  way handshaking process as shown  in figure  few fields  necessary  to understand  each  phase the sequence number  the acknowledgment  number  the control  flags and the window  size  if not empty. The three  step  in this  phase  are as follows:

2364_Connection Establishment.png


     Figure Connection establishment  using three way handshaking

a.The client  sends the first  segment a SYN segment  in which  only the SYN  flag is set. This  segment  is for  synchronization of sequence number. It consumes one  sequence number  when  the data  transfer  starts. The sequence number  is incremented by. We can say  that the SYN segment  carries no real  data but we can  think  of it as containing  imaginary byte.

b.The  server sends  the second segment  a SYN + ACK segment with 2 flag  SYN and ACK. This  segment  has a dual purpose. It  is a SYN  segment  for communication in the other  direction and server as the acknowledgment in the other  direction and  server  the acknowledgment for  the SYN segment. It  consumes one  sequence  number.

c.The  client  sends  the third  segment. This is just  an ACK  segment it acknowledges the receipt of the second  segment with the ACK  flag  and acknowledges the  receipt of the second  segment with the ACK flag and acknowledgment number  field. Note  that the  sequence number  in this segment  is the same as the one in the SYN segment  the ACK  segment  does not  consume any sequence  number.

The  connection  establishment  procedure in TCP is  susceptible to a serious security problem  called the  SYN flooding Attack. This  happens when malicious  attacker send a large  number of SYN segments  to a server pretending that each of them  is  coming  from a different client by faking the source IP address in the datagram's. The  server assuming that the clients are issuing an active open all orates the necessary resources such  as creating  communication tables and  setting  timers. The TCP server then  sends  the SYN+ ACK  segments  to the fake client which are lost. During  this time  however a lot of  resource  are occupied without  being  used. If during  this short  time  the number  of SYN segments  is  the server eventually  runs  out of resources  and may crash. This SYN flooding  attack  belongs to a type  of security  attack  known  as a denial  of  service  attack in which  an attacker monopolizes a system  with so  many  service  requests  that the  system  collapses  and denies  service to every  request.

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