One step in the preparation of nicotine sulfate from tobacco is the extraction of nicotine from aqueous solution by kerosene. The table below shows equilibrium data for the distribution of nicotine between water and kerosene.
(A) From the data in the table, calculate M ≡ Ca /C'afor nicotine in these two solvents.
(B) Compute the kerosene/water ratio necessary to remove 90 % of the nicotine from the aqueous stream in a single equilibrium stage.
(C) The volume of the separator through which this process is flowing is 500 L, and the flow rates of the aqueous and kerosene streams are qI = 65 L/min and qII = 935 L/min.
Additionally, Kma = 103 cm3 /s for this particular system and flow rate. Based on the characteristic times for this system, is it appropriate to assume that the separator is an equilibrium stage?