Commercial losses in electrical systems, Electrical Engineering

Commercial Losses in Electrical Systems

Commercial losses are caused by pilferage, theft, defective meters, and errors in meter reading and in estimating un-metered supply of energy.

                                  Box: Reasons for commercial losses

  1. Non-performing and under-performing meters.
  2. Wrong application of multiplying factors.
  3. Defects in CT and PT circuitry.
  4. Non-reading of meters.
  5. Pilferage by manipulating or bypassing of meters.
  6. Theft by direct tapping, etc.

All these losses are because of non-metering or under-metering of actual consumption. Non-technical losses occur at several places in a distribution system.

                                                    Table: Losses Due to Non-technical Reasons

•  Loss at consumer end

meters

 

•  Poor accuracy of meters,

•  Large errors in CTs/PTs,

•  Voltage drop in PT cables,

•  Loose connections in PT wire terminations,

•  Overburdened CT.

•  Tampering/bypass of

meters

•  Where meters without tamper-proof/tamper-deterrent/tamper-evident meters are used,

•  Poor quality sealing of meters,

•  Lack of seal issue, seal monitoring and management system,

•  Shabby installation of meters and metering systems,

•  Exposed CTs/PTs where such devices are not properly securitised.

•  Pilferage of energy

•  From overhead "bare" conductors.

•  From open junction boxes (in cabled systems),

•  Exposed connections/joints in service cables,

•  Bypassing the neutral wires in meters.

•  Energy accounting

system

•  Lack of proper instrumentation (metering) in feeders and DTs for carrying out energy audits,

•  Not using meters with appropriate data logging features in feeder and DT meters, 

•  Lack of a system for carrying out regular (monthly) energy accounting to monitor losses,

•  Errors in sending end meters, CTs and PTs,

•  Loose connections in PT wires (which results in low voltage at feeder meter terminals),

•  Energy accounting errors (by not following a scientific method for energy audits).

•  Errors in meter reading

•  Avoiding meter reading due to several causes like house locked, meter not traceable, etc. 

•  Manual (unintentional errors) in meter reading,

•  Intentional errors in meter reading (collusion by meter readers),

•  Coffee shop reading,

•  Data punching errors (at MRI end by meter readers),

•  Data punching errors by data entry operators,

•  Lack of validation checks,

•  Lack of management summaries and exception reports on meter reading.

•  Errors in bills

•  Errors in raising the correct bill,

•  Manipulation/changes made in meter reading at billing centres - lack of a system to assure integrity in data,

•  Lack of system to ensure bills are delivered.

•  Receipt of payment

•  Lack of system to trace defaulters including regular defaulters,

•  Lack of system for timely disconnection,

•  Care to be taken for reliable disconnection of supply (where to disconnect).

 

Posted Date: 2/6/2013 4:29:16 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Commercial losses in electrical systems, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Commercial losses in electrical systems, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Commercial losses in electrical systems Discussions

Write discussion on Commercial losses in electrical systems
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Project Garage door opener with password. Wrong password "door close" on lcd screen, correct password "door open" on lcd Screen no need the motor. Material used - Microcontroller

1. Name the three parts of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and explain why the PLC is preferred by designers over electromechanical relays. 2. Medium-voltage circuit break

Revenue Protection and Technology Interventions in Metering The power supply industry has reached an impasse where urgent steps are needed to improve the financial health of t

What is 16-bit ISA? Compare it with 8-bit ISA bus. The only difference among the 8 and 16-bit ISA bus is that other connector is attached behind the 8-bit connector. This 16-bi

design single phase distribution circuit from a supply point to a load

importance of dummy coils and equalizer connections


Q. An op amp has an open-loop frequency response as shown in Figure. (a) Find the approximate bandwidth of the circuit using this op amp: (i) With a closed-loop voltage gain

create a matrix of 5x6. with identical columns and rows ranging from 200 to 1000 in equal increments

can I get matlab code for out of band radiation reduction ofdm system