Commercial losses in electrical systems, Electrical Engineering

Commercial Losses in Electrical Systems

Commercial losses are caused by pilferage, theft, defective meters, and errors in meter reading and in estimating un-metered supply of energy.

                                  Box: Reasons for commercial losses

  1. Non-performing and under-performing meters.
  2. Wrong application of multiplying factors.
  3. Defects in CT and PT circuitry.
  4. Non-reading of meters.
  5. Pilferage by manipulating or bypassing of meters.
  6. Theft by direct tapping, etc.

All these losses are because of non-metering or under-metering of actual consumption. Non-technical losses occur at several places in a distribution system.

                                                    Table: Losses Due to Non-technical Reasons

•  Loss at consumer end



•  Poor accuracy of meters,

•  Large errors in CTs/PTs,

•  Voltage drop in PT cables,

•  Loose connections in PT wire terminations,

•  Overburdened CT.

•  Tampering/bypass of


•  Where meters without tamper-proof/tamper-deterrent/tamper-evident meters are used,

•  Poor quality sealing of meters,

•  Lack of seal issue, seal monitoring and management system,

•  Shabby installation of meters and metering systems,

•  Exposed CTs/PTs where such devices are not properly securitised.

•  Pilferage of energy

•  From overhead "bare" conductors.

•  From open junction boxes (in cabled systems),

•  Exposed connections/joints in service cables,

•  Bypassing the neutral wires in meters.

•  Energy accounting


•  Lack of proper instrumentation (metering) in feeders and DTs for carrying out energy audits,

•  Not using meters with appropriate data logging features in feeder and DT meters, 

•  Lack of a system for carrying out regular (monthly) energy accounting to monitor losses,

•  Errors in sending end meters, CTs and PTs,

•  Loose connections in PT wires (which results in low voltage at feeder meter terminals),

•  Energy accounting errors (by not following a scientific method for energy audits).

•  Errors in meter reading

•  Avoiding meter reading due to several causes like house locked, meter not traceable, etc. 

•  Manual (unintentional errors) in meter reading,

•  Intentional errors in meter reading (collusion by meter readers),

•  Coffee shop reading,

•  Data punching errors (at MRI end by meter readers),

•  Data punching errors by data entry operators,

•  Lack of validation checks,

•  Lack of management summaries and exception reports on meter reading.

•  Errors in bills

•  Errors in raising the correct bill,

•  Manipulation/changes made in meter reading at billing centres - lack of a system to assure integrity in data,

•  Lack of system to ensure bills are delivered.

•  Receipt of payment

•  Lack of system to trace defaulters including regular defaulters,

•  Lack of system for timely disconnection,

•  Care to be taken for reliable disconnection of supply (where to disconnect).


Posted Date: 2/6/2013 4:29:16 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Commercial losses in electrical systems, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Commercial losses in electrical systems, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Commercial losses in electrical systems Discussions

Write discussion on Commercial losses in electrical systems
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
A button does some command in a program when it is clicked. Buttons generally have a 3-dimensional look, although you may have to move the mouse over the button for it to look 3D.

Q. Consider a pair of coupled coils as shown in Figure of the text, with currents, voltages, and polarity dots as indicated. Show that the mutual inductance is L 12 = L 21 = M by

Question: General EMC Knowledge (a) Give 2 reasons for the augmentation of electromagnetic radiation in urban regions. (b) Pointe aux Diable bears its name due to the a

Discuss the feature of Pentium in brief. The Pentium is a 32-bit superscalar, CISC microprocessor.  The word superscalar is used for the processor that has more than one pipeli

Q. Use MATLAB to obtain the Laplace transform of the waveform f(t) = [200t e -25t + 10 e -50t sin(25t)]u(t) which consists of a damped ramp and a damped sine. Also show the

A system contains an amplifier with a gain of 10 offering the armature voltage for a motor which provides an output speed which is proportional to the armature voltage, the constan

Find the current through each resistor for the networking below using Superposition Theorem.

a) What do you mean by assembly procedures in FEM, discuss by taking suitable example of your choice. b) Write the potential energy equation for particular FE analysis of a prob

Q. Explain the operation of N-channel FET? Transistor is a linear semiconductor device that controls current with the application of a lower-power electrical signal. Transistor