Classifying expenses by nature-income statement, Financial Accounting

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Classifying expenses by nature

Under this format, expenses are not classified by their nature i.e. referred to specifically according to their type and the major categories of expenses are:-

  1. Changes in finished goods and work in progress
  2. Raw materials consumed
  3. Depreciation and amortization
  4. Employee benefits (staff costs)
  5. Other expenses
  6. Finance costs


NOTE: Classification of expenses by function is the most common format used and classification of expenses by nature is more appropriate for manufacturing firms.

There are certain types of incomes and expenses that do not face within the trading activities of the business but are within the ordinary activities of the firm. E.g. disposal of property, plant and equipment and other non-current assets.

The standard requires that if the above incomes and expenses are material, they can either be classified as part of the other expenses or shown separtely on the face of the income statement.

The company should give additional information about such items in the notes to the accounts.


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