Cipher MethodsThere are 2 methods of encrypting plaintext:• Bit stream method – every bit in the plaintext bit is transformed into a cipher bit one bit at a time.• Block cipher method – the message is divided into blocks (for example sets of 8-, 16- or32-bit blocks) and then each block of plaintext is transformed into an encrypted block of cipher bits by using an algorithm and a key.Bit stream method which is uses algorithm functions like XOR, while block cipher method can use substitution, transposition, XOR, etc.Substitution cipherSubstitution cipher substitutes one value for the other value. The following are the different types of substitution:• Monoalphabetic substitution – It uses one alphabet to substitute. Simple method but powerful if combines with other operations.• Polyalphabetic substitution – It is more advanced method which uses two or more alphabets.• Vigenère cipher – It is an advanced type of cipher which uses simple polyalphabetic code that is made up of 26 distinct cipher alphabets.Transposition cipherTransposition cipher rearranges values within the block to create ciphertext.Exclusive OR (XOR)It is a function of Boolean algebra where the two bits are compared to each other• If the two bits are identical, result is 0• If the two bits not identical, result is 1Vernam cipherThis is developed at AT&T that uses set of characters once per encryption process.Book (or Running Key) cipherThis method uses text in book as key to decrypt a message where ciphertext contains codes which represents page, line and word numbersHash FunctionsHash functions are mathematical algorithms that generate message summary or digest to confirm message identity and confirm no content has changed. Hash algorithms are publicly known functions that create hash value. Use of keys is not needed, but message authentication code (MAC) may be attached to a message. This method is mostly used in password verification systems to confirm identity of user.