Causality principle for the klein- gordon equation, Physics

Suppose Fluid (say, water) occupies a domain D 230_causality principle for the Klein- Gordon equation.png and has velocity field V=V(x, t). A substance (say, a day) is suspended into the fluid and will be transported by the fluid as well as diffused within it; let u= u(x,t) be the concentration of the substance( mass per unit volume). Let 826_causality principle for the Klein- Gordon equation1.png be the concentration flux (mass per unit area per unit time, analogous to heat flux). Let B(x) be a ball of radius r > 0 contained in D. Derive the conservation law.

995_causality principle for the Klein- Gordon equation2.png

Fick's law for diffusion statesĀ  that the concentration flux due to diffusion is proportional to the gradient of the concentration flux due to diffusion is proportional to the gradient of the concentration. Deduce that 1363_causality principle for the Klein- Gordon equation3.png.

Apply the divergence theorem to the conservation law and substitute the flux formula to arrive at the diffusion- transport equation:

783_causality principle for the Klein- Gordon equation4.png

this is the higher- dimensional transport equation. If the fluid is motionless, it is called the diffusion equation.

Determine the causality principle for the Klein- Gordon equation in one dimension. Deduce that the speed of propagation is at most c.

Posted Date: 4/2/2013 3:26:32 AM | Location : United States







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