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Breadth-first search starts at a given vertex h, which is at level 0. In the first stage, we go toall the vertices that are at the distance of one edge away. When we go there, we markedas "visited," the vertices adjacent to the start vertex s - these vertices are placed into level 1.In the second stage, we go to all the new vertices we can reach at the distance of two edgesaway from the source vertex h. These new vertices, which are adjacent to level 1 vertex and notpreviously assigned to a level, are placed into level 2. The BFS traversal ends when each vertexhas been finished.The BFS(G, a) algorithm creates a breadth-first search tree with the source vertex, s, as its root.The predecessor or parent of any other vertex in the tree is the vertex from which it was firstdeveloped. For every vertex, v, the parent of v is marked in the variable π[v]. Another variable,d[v], calculated by BFS has the number of tree edges on the way from s tov. The breadth-firstsearch needs a FIFO queue, Q, to store red vertices.Algorithm: Breadth-First Search TraversalBFS(V, E, a)1.2. do color[u] ← BLACK3. d[u] ← infinity4. π[u] ← NIL5. color[s] ← RED ? Source vertex find6. d[a] ← 0 ? Start7. π[a] ← NIL ? Stat8. Q ← {} ? Empty queue Q9. ENQUEUE(Q, a)10 while Q is non-empty11. do u ← DEQUEUE(Q) ? That is, u = head[Q]12.13. do if color[v] ← BLACK ? if color is black you've never seen it before14. then color[v] ← RED15. d[v] ← d[u] + 116. π[v] ← u17. ENQUEUE(Q, v)18. DEQUEUE(Q)19. color[u] ← BLACK
Define Spanning Tree A Spanning Tree of a connected graph is its linked acyclic sub graph (i.e., a tree) that having all the vertices of the graph.
Explain CAM software CAD/CAM software has been recognized as an essential tool in the designing and manufacturing of a product due to its ability to depict the designs and tool
Write an algorithm for binary search. Algorithm for Binary Search 1. if (low> high) 2. return (-1) 3. Mid = (low + high)/2 4. if ( X = = a[mid]) 5. return (mid); 6.
Program segment for deletion of any element from the queue delete() { int delvalue = 0; if (front == NULL) printf("Queue Empty"); { delvalue = front->value;
Determine the precondition of a binary search For instance, precondition of a binary search is that array searched is sorted however checking this precondition is so expensive
example of stack using flowchart
Q. Convert the given infix expression into the postfix expression (also Show the steps) A ∗ (B + D)/ E - F(G + H / k ) Ans. Steps showing Infix to Post fix
sir how can i explain deletion process in a data structure
Q.1 What is an algorithm? What are the characteristics of a good algorithm? Q.2 How do you find the complexity of an algorithm? What is the relation between the time and space c
INSERT FUNCTION /*prototypes of insert & find functions */ list * insert_list(list *); list * find(list *, int); /*definition of anyinsert function */ list * inser
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