Basic things used in road construction:
Water Absorption : The quantity of water absorbed by aggregates.
Aggregate Impact Value : The percentage by weight of crushed materials formed under impact from the Aggregate Impact test machine.
Los Angeles Abrasion value : The percentage by weight of fine material formed under abrasion in a Los Angeles Abrasion test machine.
Aggregate Crushing Value : Percentage of fines formed by crushing in an Aggregate Crushing Test apparatus.
Flakiness and Elongation : The percentage by weight of particles which are flaky and elongated in an aggregate sample.
Stripping : The loss of bond between aggregates and bitumen due to the presence of water.
Soundness : The ability of stone aggregates to withstand alternate wetting and drying and freezing and thawing.
OPC Cement : Ordinary Portland Cement.
PPC : Portland Pozzalane Cement.
Fly Ash : The ash residue formed by burning coal, and which can be used to partially replace cement.
Setting Time : Time required for cement to set and harden.
Bitumen : A viscous material formed as residue in a petroleum refinery and used as a road binder.
Penetration : The measure of hardness of bitumen, determined by the amount of penetration of a standard needle.
Softening Point : The temperature at which bitumen softens.
Flash Point : The temperature at which bitumen gives off vapours which can ignite a flame.
Ductility : A measure of elasticity of bitumen.
Solubility of Bitumen : The percentage of bitumen that can be dissolved in Carbon Disulphide.
Polymer Modified Bitumen : Bitumen to which a polymer, rubber or crumb rubber is added to improve its properties.
Cut-back : A bitumen to which a diluent is added to make it liquid.
Emulsion : A bituminous binder in a fluid form which requires no heating.
Tar : A residue from the carbonisation of coal, and used as a road binder before the advent of bitumen.