Basic things used in road construction, Civil Engineering

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Basic things used in road construction:

Water Absorption : The quantity of water absorbed by aggregates.

Aggregate Impact Value : The percentage by weight of crushed materials formed under impact from the Aggregate Impact test machine.

Los Angeles Abrasion value : The percentage by weight of fine material formed under abrasion in a Los Angeles Abrasion test machine.

Aggregate Crushing Value : Percentage of fines formed by crushing in an Aggregate Crushing Test apparatus.

Flakiness and Elongation : The percentage by weight of particles which are flaky and elongated in an aggregate sample.

Stripping : The loss of bond between aggregates and bitumen due to the presence of water.

Soundness :  The ability of stone aggregates to withstand alternate wetting and drying and freezing and thawing.

OPC Cement : Ordinary Portland Cement.

PPC : Portland Pozzalane Cement.

Fly Ash : The ash residue formed by burning coal, and which can be used to partially replace cement.

Setting Time : Time required for cement to set and harden.

Bitumen : A viscous material formed as residue in a petroleum refinery and used as a road binder.

Penetration : The measure of hardness of bitumen, determined by the amount of penetration of a standard needle.

Softening Point : The temperature at which bitumen softens.

Flash Point :  The temperature at which bitumen gives off vapours which can ignite a flame.

Ductility : A measure of elasticity of bitumen.

Solubility of Bitumen : The percentage of bitumen that can be dissolved in Carbon Disulphide.

Polymer Modified Bitumen : Bitumen to which a polymer, rubber or crumb rubber is added to improve its properties.

Cut-back : A bitumen to which a diluent is added to make it liquid.

Emulsion : A bituminous binder in a fluid form which requires no heating.

Tar : A residue from the carbonisation of coal, and used as a road binder before the advent of bitumen.


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