Basic concepts in internet, Basic Computer Science


Internet: The global network of computers linked by exclusive and regular phone lines and microwave and satellite signals.

Extranet: An extranet is the part of a corporate internet that allows companies to communicate with the internets of their customers and suppliers facilitating electronic transactions.

World Wide Web (WWW): A big part of the network of networks – the internet – is called the WWW. It is an interlinked collection of the hypermedia system residing on web servers, that lets you browse through lots of information.


Browse: The client programs designed to work with Web servers are called the browsers. A server on the Web contains many sites, which inturn are composed of Pages. Web Sites offer text, pictures, graphics, sound and movies. The Web servers use the internet expressways to deliver data through a process called the packet switching. Each file is broken into small packages, tagged with its origin and destination and sent through routers, the computers which function like mail handlers, sending each package it receives through various routes. The client program on the other end reconstitutes the pieces.

Hypermedia and Multimedia: A hypermedia has a broader domain and apart from the text it can also contain pictures, sound and video. A multimedia is a combination of these features. You can see an animated film with sound or any other such combination.

Archie, Jughead, Gopher, and Veronica: Archie is a system that helps find files located anywhere on the internet. Jughead is a program that helps you find information in the gopher, a system where you find information using menus. And Veronica is friend of Archie and she helps you find things in the gopherspace.

Java: The language can run on any computer architecture and operating system and can be downloaded straight from internet. On the internet the programs written on Java are called Applets.

Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules governing the formatting of data transmitted between computers and terminals. A protocol is actually how computers will talk to each other. Protocol definitions range from how bits are placed on a wire to the format of an electronic mail message. Standard protocols allow computers from different manufacturers with different operating systems to communicate.

Bandwidth: It is the capacity of a cable or a phone line, measured in bits per second.

Bits Per Second: It is the speed at which bits are transmitted over a communication medium.

Baud: The rate at which the medium (usually a modem) can transfer groups of data. Multiple bits are transferred in each group, so the rate of data transfer may exceed the actual data rate.

FTP: It is File Transfer Protocol; or any application moving files using the File Transfer Protocol.

HTML: It is Hypertext Markup Language; the language in which World Wide Web documents are written.

HTTP: It is a protocol used on the web to transfer hypertext documents. A protocol is a set of rules that the computer use to communicate logically.

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which allows all computers to speak the language of the internet and other networks.

Packet: It is a bundle of data. Packet sizes can vary from roughly 40 to 32,000 bytes, depending on network hardware and media.

Hypertext: Hypertext is a system of Documents that contain links to other documents; selecting a link automatically calls up the other document.

ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network; a digital telephone service. If your local phone company supports it, if you have the appropriate hardware and software, and if your local central office provides ISDN service (lots of ifs), ISDN allows high-speed home access to the internet (56 kilobytes per second).

Modem: A piece of equipment that connects a computer to a data transmission line. Today's fastest modems transmit data at 28800 kps, up from 2400 kps just a couple of years ago. (Within a few years, transmitting data at 28800 kps will seem like standing still).

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): It is the transfer of electronic messages from one company to another using a network. Companies use EDI to facilitate business-to-business transactions like purchasing orders, purchase conformation, invoicing and payments. These messages can be exchanged using VAN (vast area network) or the internet.


Posted Date: 9/14/2012 6:39:09 AM | Location : United States

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