A nurse researcher is investigating the effect of timing of standard pain control interventions on severity of pain in adolescents with sickle-cell disease. She establishes three treatment protocols: 1) initiation of pain control immediately upon the presence of prodromal sign (an "aura" signaling the imminent onset of pain); 2) initiation of pain control one hour after the onset of pain; and 3) initiation of pain control only at the points where non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and guided imagery are no longer effective in keeping pain bearable. She conducted a one-way ANOVA to analyze her data and the following table summarizes her findings:
Source df SS MSS F p
Among 2 75536.2 37768.1 5.159 <.05
Within 27 197660.3 7320.8
Total 29 273196.5
On the basis of these data alone, she drew the following conclusions. For each conclusion, indicate whether you feel the conclusion is justified or unjustified.
1. Severity of pain is influenced by the timing of pain interventions in sickle-cell crises.
2 Immediate intervention is better than either slightly delayed intervention or initiation at crisis stage.
3. She has more than 99% confidence in her conclusion that severity of pain is influenced by timing.