Accounting entity - accounting principle, Financial Management

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Accounting Entity - Accounting Principle

For accounting reasons it is suppose that business has separate existence and its entity is different from that of its owner(s). In simple term this means in which the liabilities and assets of the business are not the liabilities and assets of the owner of the business.

Accounting is completed for the business entities as distinguished is completed for the business entities as distinguished from the persons related with these entities; as such the transactions of the business and those of the owners should be accounted for and reported separately.  A business enterprise is an economic unit separate and apart from the owners. Every transaction should be analysed from the point of view of a business enterprise and not that of persons who are associated with it. For example when the owner introduces cash in business, this cash is shown as Capital Liability of the business towards the owner. The introduction or withdrawal of cash does not affect the overall cash (personal plus business) position of the owner. This concept enables recording of transactions between business and its owner.

This concept ensures that accounting records reflect only the activities of the business and the expenses related to common resources used for business and personal use and apportioned on some equitable basis between business and its owners. This concept applies to all form of business enterprises e.g. sole proprietorship, partnership and joint stock companies. However, the separate existence of business entity is recognized by law only in case of corporate form of enterprise, for sole proprietorship and partnership firms the law does not distinguish the owners and business separately.  Hence in legal sense the owners and business may not be different for some form of business enterprise, but for accounting purpose the business and the owners would be always treated separately.


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