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Electric current is nothing but flow of electric charge through a conducting medium. This charge can be is typically carried by moving electrons in a conductor such as wire or carried by ions in an electrolyte, or it may be by both ions and electrons in a plasma. Whenever the basic requirements of an electric circuit are met, then charge flow through the external circuit and we say that there is a current that is a flow of charge. We use the word current in this context to simply imply that something is happening in the wires that is charge is moving. Current is a physical quantity and it can be measured as well as expressed numerically. Current, a physical quantity, is the rate at which electric charge flows past a point on a given circuit. So we can say that electric current is simply defined as the ratio of the quantity of electric charge to the time. Mathematically it can be given as


Where Q is the amount of electric charge flows past a point over some time t.

More generally, electric current I can be represented as the rate of change of electric charge flows per unit time along any point in varying waveform:

I=∆Q/∆t or dQ/dt

So electric current is the charge flow per unit time past a given point in an electric circuit. The SI unit for measuring current is the ampere, and which can be defined as charge flow through some surface or point at the rate of one coulomb per second that is measured in Coulombs/second which is named as Amperes. In almost all DC electric circuits, it is assumed that the resistance to current flow is a constant quantity so that the electric current in the circuit is related to resistance and voltage by Ohm's law. Standard abbreviations for the units related to electric currents are 1 A = 1C/s. Electric current is measured by using ammeter. Ampere is often used as its shortened form that is Amp and it is abbreviated by the unit symbol A. So we can say that a current of 1 ampere means there is 1 coulomb of electric charge passing through a cross section of a wire in every 1 second.

1 ampere = 1 coulomb / 1 second

We know that positive charge in an electric circuit moves from the positive terminal to negative terminal, so by convention this is the direction of an electric current worldwide used. But the electrons would actually move through the wires in the opposite direction that is from –ve to +ve terminal.

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