Why an increase in constriction of veins

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1. Why 60 years-old patient HA, who was bedridden for a few days, feels dizzy and experiences significant increase in his heart rate after standing up?

2. What will happen to his systemic arterioles regarding vascular tone changes?

3. Why an increase in constriction of veins and an increase in venous return will help to increase his end-diastolic volume?

4. How did epinephrine release from his adrenal medulla affect his blood supply (perfusion) to his skeletal muscles?

5. If this patient is regularly taking beta-blocker, such as metoprolol, how will this drug affect his sympathetic discharge to the heart, to veins and to arterioles? What changes in his blood pressure can be expected? What advice should be given to this patient?

6. If this patient is regularly taking vasodilator, such as long-acting isosorbidedinitrate (Isordil), how will this drug affect his sympathetic discharge to the heart, to veins and to arterioles? What changes in his blood pressure can be expected? What advice should be given to this patient?

7. If this patient is regularly taking Calcium Channel Blocker (CCB), such as nifedipine, how will this drug affect his sympathetic discharge to the heart, to veins and to arterioles? What changes in his blood pressure can be expected? What advice should be given to this patient?

8. If this patient is regularly taking Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, such as lisinopril, how will this drug affect his sympathetic discharge to the heart, to veins and to arterioles? What changes in his blood pressure can be expected? What advice should be given to this patient?

9. If this patient is regularly taking Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB), such as losartan, how will this drug affect his sympathetic discharge to the heart, to veins and to arterioles? What changes in his blood pressure can be expected? What advice should be given to this patient?

10. If this patient is regularly taking thiazide diuretic, such as hydrochlorothiazide, how will this drug affect his sympathetic discharge to the heart, to veins and to arterioles? What changes in his blood pressure can be expected? What advice should be given to this patient?

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Reference no: EM13677612

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