What is the value in pretesting a questionnaire

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Reference no: EM13872976

I. Multiple Choice-

1. Which of the following statements is true about quantitative survey research designs?
A. They tend to have high response rates.
B. Concepts and relationships that are not directly measurable cannot be studied.
C. It is easy to collect in-depth data using quantitative research designs.
D. They facilitate statistical analyses.
E. They cannot produce useful estimates.

2. Which of the following statements is true regarding sampling errors?
A. They are largely caused by the size of the sample.
B. They cannot be measured statistically.
C. They cannot be measured directly.
D. They occur when the findings based on the sample and the overall population overlap.
E. The sampling method used does not impact sampling errors.

3. Tracy is trying to randomly telephoning people to collect data for her research project. Many of the people she calls refuse to speak with her, but a few do so and provide her with data. In this situation, Tracy's sample is most strongly affected by _______________________.
A. high response rates.
B. self-selection bias.
C. sampling error.
D. undercoverage bias.
E. social desirability bias.

4. Which of the following is a major disadvantage of the mall-intercept interview method?
A. It is more expensive than an in-home interview.
B. Mall patrons are not likely to be representative of the target population.
C. It is more time consuming than an in-home interview.
D. It is relatively less convenient for the researcher.
E. Respondents are less truthful in their responses when answering questions face-to-face.

5. Compared to person-administered surveys, self-administered surveys have ___________________.
A. higher cost per survey.
B. greater interviewer-respondent bias.
C. higher response rates.
D. the advantage of efficient monitoring.
E. the advantage of respondents control.

6. Respondents who are affected by social desirability bias are likely to ___________________.
A. under report helping others.
B. over report donating to charity.
C. over report littering.
D. over report alcohol consumption.
E. under report acts of kindness.

7. Experiments are most likely to be used in __________________.
A. qualitative research.
B. causal research.
C. descriptive research.
D. Exploratory research.

8. Which of the following statements regarding experiments is true?
A. Field experiments are primarily designed to maximize internal validity.
B. Test marketing is a common type of laboratory experiment.
C. In laboratory experiments, the independent variable is manipulated, but not in field experiments.
D. Experiments conducted in an artificial situation have high external validity.
E. In most situations, experiments are the best research tool for assessing causality.

9. Sampling is used frequently by marketing researchers because
A. it is an efficient means of estimating characteristics of a large group.
B. the entire target population can be sampled in the majority of research projects.
C. it can eliminate sampling error if conducted properly.
D. conducting a census is easy in most situations.
E. researchers can use it to determine the exact features of a population.

10. Jamie Nelson works for a telephone company. She is interested in determining the satisfaction of people with the landline telephone service provided by the company. She decides to draw her sample from the telephone directory. For Jamie's research, the telephone directory is serving as a(n)
A. sampling unit.
B. element chart.
C. sampling frame.
D. element.
E. census.

11. Gary isn't able to get a complete listing of the defined target population he is interested in sampling. Which of the following sampling methods below could Gary potentially use in this situation?
A. simplerandom sampling.
B. cluster sampling
C. systematic random sampling.
D. convenience sampling.
E. stratified random sampling.

12. Which of the following statements is true of proportionately stratified sampling?
A. Thesize each stratum dependent on its size relative to the defined target population.
B. It is used when the researcher uses judgment to determine who should be sampled.
C. The size of each stratum is independent of its relative size in the population.
D. Sampling units are divided into subpopulations called clusters.
E. The smaller strata are sampled more heavily because they make up a larger percentage of the target population.

13. Daren is a marketing researcher interested in undocumented migrant workers. He is finding it difficult to locate enough of them to conduct his research. Which sampling method would be most effective for Daren?
A. quota sampling.
B. stratified random sampling.
C. snowball sampling.
D. cluster sampling.
E. convenience sampling.

14. In testing early versions of new prototype, many firms use their employees as respondents to estimate how likely customers would be to purchase the products. This is a kind of _______________.
A. quota sampling.
B. stratified random sampling.
C. snowball sampling.
D. cluster sampling.
E. convenience sampling.

15. Which of the following statements regarding sample size is FALSE?
A. In exploratory research, large samples are not typical.
B. Even large samples can suffer from sampling bias.
C. As the level of confidence the researcher desires increases, the needed sample size increases rapidly.
D. When probabilistic sampling methods are used, researchers do not have to make judgment calls about what to do.
E. If a researcher needs to use a specific statistical test, a certain sample size is usually necessary for that test.

16. A local steakhouse sends its regular customers an email invitation to complete a brief satisfaction survey. This is done to determine how satisfied customers of the restaurant are. What kind of sampling bias is most likely to occur in this situation?
A. unfavorable.
B. atypical people.
C. extreme views.
D. favorable.
E. non-working people.

17. Which of the following statements regarding qualitative analysis is true?
A. Producing findings that apply to entire populations is a key goal of qualitative analysis.
B. Measuring something is usually the main object of qualitative analysis.
C. The data analyzed are typically numerical.
D. The phases of qualitative analysis typically follow a specific sequence (i.e do this, then that).
E. Qualitative analysis excels in providing researchers with a through understanding of the topic being researched.

18. With ___________________, researchers try to determine how to ‘sort' qualitative data in a meaningful way.
A. data reduction.
B. conclusion drawing.
C. data collection.
D. data display.
E. verifying conclusions.

19. In _____________________, researchers may try to find comments from people that contradict the researcher's findings.
A. data reduction.
B. conclusion drawing.
C. data collection.
D. data display.
E. verifying conclusions.

20. While checking out comments made on social media regarding his business's latest product, James jots down some thoughts he has regarding the comments. This is a recommended action in the ___________________ phase of qualitative analysis.
A. data reduction.
B. conclusion drawing.
C. data collection.
D. data display.
E. verifying conclusions.

21. Which of the following best illustrates a non-recursive relationship?
A. Job satisfaction increases job performance which in turn increases leadership opportunities within a company.
B. Job satisfaction decreases job performance which in turn decreases leadership opportunities within a company.
C. Job satisfaction increases job performance and thus compensation earned on the job, which in turn increases job satisfaction.
D. Advertising leads to sales growth which leads to greater market power.
E. Advertising leads to sales growth which leads to greater market power which results in greater brand recognition.

22. In order to establish the emic validity of research findings, a researcher must primarily show that ____________________.
A. similar results have been reported by others working independently on the problem.
B. the research methodology of the study complies with the necessary research standards.
C. the findings of the study can be generalized.
D. similar results can be obtained if the study were to be repeated.
E. key members of the group investigated agree with the findings of the study.

23. Which of the following is NOT an appropriate recommendation to make based solely on qualitative research?
A. The findings of our focus group studies prove that the proposed advertising campaign will damage our brand.
B. The conclusions of this study give reason for concern regarding our newest competitor.
C. Our findings imply that reducing the price of the product by 10% would not be likely to hurt the image of the product.
D. Based on our analysis of the data, allowing the proposed retailer to carry our product seems reasonable.
E. Our conclusions suggest that the new prototype product may need to be offered in additional colors.

24. In conducting a peer review, a researcher typically seeks input from ___________________.
A. people who provide the data.
B. other researchers of the topic.
C. policy makers who will use the study's findings to make decisions.
D. managers who commission the study.
E. the control group.

25. Which of the following statements regarding constructs is true?
A. A construct may have some characteristics that can be directly measured and some that cannot.
B. An individual's length of time as a customer of a business can be considered a construct.
C. Constructs should be measured differently in each research setting.
D. Aspects of a construct that can be directly measured are referred to as abstract properties.
E. The emotions that a consumer feels toward a specific advertisement would not be considered a construct.

26. The scale measurement process primarily ___________________.
A. determines how to precisely measure each concept.
B. identifies what should be measured.
C. defines the purpose of the study.
D. defines what is to be measured.
E. identifies the characteristics that define each concept.

27. A researcher wants to determine the gender proportion of her client's business as well as how these customers rank the business compared to five competing businesses. This will require the use of a(n) _________________ scale and a(n) ________________ scale.
A. ordinal, interval.
B. nominal, ratio.
C. interval, ratio.
D. nominal, ordinal.
E. ordinal, ratio.

28. Which of the following statements regarding interval scales is true?
A. They can measure absolute differences between scale points.
B. The standard deviation cannot be calculated for interval scales.
C. They provide the most information possible of any type of scale.
D. They do not allow for comparison between measured objects.
E. They are less powerful than ordinal scales.

29. According to the theory of attitudinal measurement, _____________________.
A. error that occurs in aconsistent manner can be controlled with a large sample size.
B. the value we get from measuring attitudes perfectly reflects the respondent's attitude.
C. askingdifferent respondents questions in different ways minimizes systematic error.
D. error that randomly occurs cannot be minimized with big samples.
E. systematic error is a more problematic issue than is random error.

30. Jack has developed a measure of the satisfaction construct and another measure of the customer loyalty construct. After collecting a large amount of data, he has found that people respond to both of these measures in almost exactly the same way. This means that the measures do not have _____________________.
A. discriminant validity.
B. test-retest reliability.
C. convergent validity.
D. face validity.
E. internal consistency reliability.

31. Markon Electronics is trying to determine how much sales revenue it gets from its ‘typical' customer per year. The measure they would use to measure sales revenue would be a(n) _________________, and the ___________________ would be the optimal measure of central tendency in this situation.
A. interval, mean.
B. ratio, median.
C. ordinal, mode.
D. ratio, mean.
E. interval, median.

32. Which of the following statements regarding criteria for scale development is FALSE?
A. Forced choice scales use an even number of scale points.
B. The number of scale points used depends significantly on who are the research participants.
C. When researchers anticipate that responses to a scale will be skewed, balanced scales are generally preferable.
D. If a researcher wants to have mean values of something, this will impact the type of scale needed.
E. In nearly all situations, statements or questions that are worded in a negative way should be avoided.

33. Which of the following must be kept in mind while preparing questionnaires?
A. Any difficult or sensitive questions should be placed at the beginning of each section.
B. Before selecting a title for the questionnaire, the researcher should include a brief introductory section.
C. Asking sensitive questions is alright as they are required to achieve research objectives.
D. Questionable words should be examined in a pretest.
E. Researchers can use leading questions in their questionnaires.

34. Which of the following statements regarding structure questions is true?
A. These questions require more thinking and effort on the part of respondents.
B. These questions are rarely used in quantitative research.
C. They are open-ended questions that enable respondents to reply in their own words.
D. These questions are often skipped by respondents.
E. The process of responding to these questions is faster.

35. What is the problem with the following question: "How well do you like this time-saving product?"
A. question is too specific/general.
B. double-barreled question.
C. sensitive question.
D. respondents cannot remember.
E. leading question.

36. What is the problem with the following question: "How likely are you to purchase this product and recommend it to others?"
A. question is too specific/general.
B. double-barreled question.
C. sensitive question.
D. respondents cannot remember.
E. leading question.

37. The purpose of screening questions is to __________________.
A. prevent unqualified respondents from being included in the study.
B. provide the respondent with an overview of the research.
C. arrange the sequence of questions from general to more specific based on research objectives.
D. identify difficult and sensitive questions and place them toward the end of each section.
E. minimize or eliminate response order bias.

38. Often, researchers will use multiple versions of a questionnaire where the order of the questions is different in each version, but the questions themselves are the same. This is done in order to ________________.
A. prevent unqualified respondents from being included in the study.
B. provide the respondent with an overview of the research.
C. arrange the sequence of questions from general to more specific based on research objectives.
D. identify difficult and sensitive questions and place them toward the end of each section.
E. minimize or eliminate response order bias.

39. Which of the following statements regarding pretest is true?
A. The pretest form serves as a blueprint for training people on how to execute the interviewing process in a standardized fashion.
B. The final evaluation of the questionnaire is accomplished with a pretest.
C. The number of respondents for a pretest is most often between 50 and 70 individuals.
D. A pretest is prepared when the order of the questions or of the closed-end responses to particular question influences the answer given.
E. For pretest, the questionnaire is given to a large group of respondents.

40. A person meets all the requirements for inclusion in a survey. She is contacted by an interviewer, is willing to participate, and meets all of the screening requirements, but she is not included in the survey. Which of the following documents would most likely have been led to her exclusion from the sample?
A. quota sheet.
B. call record sheets.
C. supervisor instructions.
D. rating cards.
E. Interviewer instructions.

II. Short Essays -

41. Harry has been hired to do a research project for non-profit organization focused on stopping the consumption of cocaine. He needs to collect data from cocaine users regarding their use of the drug. What type of survey research method would be most appropriate in this situation, and why? What issues should he be concerned with?

42. Why should researchers conducting qualitative data analysis attempt to verify their conclusion? Briefly explain the methods available to accomplish this.

43. What is the value in pretesting a questionnaire? How should researchers pretest a questionnaire?

Reference no: EM13872976

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