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Make a frequency table and a histogram
Course:- Other Subject
Reference No.:- EM13982219

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1. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables:

a. Nominal:

b. Ordinal:

c. Interval:

d. Ratio scale:

e. Continuous:

f. Discrete:

g. Quantitative:

h. Qualitative:

2. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon:

30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20
24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40

Make a frequency table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution.

3. Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as "...a means of bullying in which peers use electronics {such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites} to taunt, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer" (p.565). The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents' reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying.

a. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.

b. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.

 Incidence of Traditional and Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N=84) Forms of Bullying N % Electronic victims 41 48.8 Text-message victim 27 32.1 Internet victim (websites, chatrooms) 13 15.5 Picture-phone victim 8 9.5 Traditional Victims 60 71.4 Physical victim 38 45.2 Teasing victim 50 59.5 Rumors victim 32 38.6 Exclusion victim 30 50 Electronic Bullies 18 21.4 Text-message bully 18 21.4 Internet bully 11 13.1 Traditional Bullies 54 64.3 Physical bully 29 34.5 Teasing bully 38 45.2 Rumor bully 22 26.2 Exclusion bully 35 41.7

4. Kärnä and colleagues (2013) tested the effects of a new antibullying program, called KiVa, among students in grades 1-3 and grades 7-9 in 147 schools in Finland. The schools were randomly assigned to receive the new antibullying program or no program. At the beginning, middle, and end of the school year, all of the students completed a number of questionnaires, which included the following two questions: "How often have you been bullied at school in the last couple of months?" and "How often have you bullied others at school in the last couple of months?" The table below is a frequency table that shows students' responses to these two questions at the end of the school year (referred to as "Wave 3" in the title of the table). Note that the table shows the results combined for all of the students in the study. In the table, "victimization" refers to students' reports of being bullied and "bullying" is students' reports of bullying other students.

a. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.

b. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results. (You may be interested to know that the KiVa program successfully reduced victimization and bullying among students in grades 1-3 but the results were mixed with regards to the effectiveness of the program among those in grades 7-9.).

 Frequencies of Responses in the Five Categories of the Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Variables at Wave 3 Grades 1-3 Grades 7-9 Victimization Bullying Victimization Bullying Variable Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Occurrence Not at all 3,203 53.6 4,296 72 10,660 77.4 10,880 79.5 Only once or twice 1,745 29.2 1,333 22.3 2,031 14.7 1,987 14.5 2 or 3 times a month 446 7.5 197 3.3 402 2.9 344 2.5 About once a week 297 5 90 1.5 312 2.3 196 1.4 Several times a week 281 4.7 49 0.8 375 2.7 279 2 Participants Respondents n 5,972 100 5,965 100 13,780 100 13,686 100 Missing n 955 962 2,723 2,817 Total N 6,927 6,927 16,503 16,503

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