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Make a frequency table and a histogram
Course:- Other Subject
Reference No.:- EM13982219




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1. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables:

a. Nominal:

b. Ordinal:

c. Interval:

d. Ratio scale:

e. Continuous:

f. Discrete:

g. Quantitative:

h. Qualitative:

2. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon:

30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20
24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40

Make a frequency table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution.

3. Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as "...a means of bullying in which peers use electronics {such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites} to taunt, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer" (p.565). The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents' reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying.

a. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.

b. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.

Incidence of Traditional and Electronic Bullying and Victimization (N=84)

Forms of Bullying

N

%

Electronic victims

41

48.8

 

Text-message victim

27

32.1

 

Internet victim (websites, chatrooms)

13

15.5

 

Picture-phone victim

8

9.5

Traditional Victims

60

71.4

 

Physical victim

38

45.2

 

Teasing victim

50

59.5

 

Rumors victim

32

38.6

 

Exclusion victim

30

50

Electronic Bullies

18

21.4

 

Text-message bully

18

21.4

 

Internet bully

11

13.1

Traditional Bullies

54

64.3

 

Physical bully

29

34.5

 

Teasing bully

38

45.2

 

Rumor bully

22

26.2

 

Exclusion bully

35

41.7

4. Kärnä and colleagues (2013) tested the effects of a new antibullying program, called KiVa, among students in grades 1-3 and grades 7-9 in 147 schools in Finland. The schools were randomly assigned to receive the new antibullying program or no program. At the beginning, middle, and end of the school year, all of the students completed a number of questionnaires, which included the following two questions: "How often have you been bullied at school in the last couple of months?" and "How often have you bullied others at school in the last couple of months?" The table below is a frequency table that shows students' responses to these two questions at the end of the school year (referred to as "Wave 3" in the title of the table). Note that the table shows the results combined for all of the students in the study. In the table, "victimization" refers to students' reports of being bullied and "bullying" is students' reports of bullying other students.

a. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics.

b. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results. (You may be interested to know that the KiVa program successfully reduced victimization and bullying among students in grades 1-3 but the results were mixed with regards to the effectiveness of the program among those in grades 7-9.).

Frequencies of Responses in the Five Categories of the Self-Reported Bullying and Victimization Variables at Wave 3

 


Grades 1-3


Grades 7-9

 


Victimization


Bullying


Victimization


Bullying

Variable

Freq.

%

 

Freq.

%

 

Freq.

%

 

Freq.

%

Occurrence











 

 

Not at all

3,203

53.6


4,296

72


10,660

77.4


10,880

79.5

 

Only once or twice

1,745

29.2


1,333

22.3


2,031

14.7


1,987

14.5

 

2 or 3 times a month

446

7.5


197

3.3


402

2.9


344

2.5

 

About once a week

297

5


90

1.5


312

2.3


196

1.4

 

Several times a week

281

4.7


49

0.8


375

2.7


279

2

Participants











 

 

Respondents n

5,972

100


5,965

100


13,780

100


13,686

100

 

Missing n

955



962



2,723



2,817

 

 

Total N

6,927



6,927



16,503



16,503

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




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