How antibodies help to destroy invading bacterial cells

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Reference no: EM13698374

Part I.

1. Name the cytokines that regulate growth and maturation in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and megakaryocytes.

2. Distinguish between heme and hemoglobin, and between ferritin and transferrin

3. If you injured your finger by the cut with knife, what mechanisms will act to stop the bleeding?

4. Distinguish between the intrinsic, extrinsic, and common pathways of the coagulation cascade.

5. Describe the role of calcium in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

6. Once platelets are activated to aggregate, what factors halt their activity?

7. Explain the mechanism of activation of fibrinolytic system.

8. Why heparin is a very powerful anticoagulant?

9. Explain why von Willebrand's disease cause prolonged bleeding after a dental or surgical procedure.

10. A person with O blood type is transfused with type A blood. What happens? Why?

11. What constitutes a universal donor and a universal recipient? What happens when blood from a universal recipient is transfused to universal donor?

12. Why there is no universal donor or universal recipient anymore?

Part II.

1. Explain how antibodies help to destroy invading bacterial cells.

2. Describe the role of macrophages in activating the specific immune response to antigens.

3. Explain how tolerance to self-antigens may be produced. Also, give two examples of autoimmune diseases and explain their possible causes.

4. A child is stung by a bee for the first time. Why should the parents be particularly alert when the child is stung a second time?

5. Because antibodies are proteins, they are too large to cross cell membranes on transport proteins or through channels. How then do IgA and other antibodies become part of external secretions such as saliva, tears, and mucus?

6. Name the three main types of lymphocytes and their subtypes. Explain the functions and interactions of each group.

7. Why do lymph nodes often swell and become tender or even painful when you are sick?

8. What is meant by the term neuromodulation?

9. HIV is a retrovirus that uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to reproduce. New antiretroviral drugs are used to treat pts with AIDS. Why can't retroviruses reproduce without reverse transcriptase?

10. What correlation can be made between T-cell count and the viral load of HIV in patients with AIDS?

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Reference no: EM13698374

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