Transmission Media Assignment Help

Physical Layer - Transmission Media

Transmission Media

Guided Transmission Media

In Guided transmission media usually two kind of materials are used.

1.  Copper

o  Coaxial Cable

o  Twisted Pair

2.  Optical Fiber

1.  Coaxial Cable: Coaxial cable made up of an inner conductor and an outer conductor and these are separated by an insulator. The inner conductor is typically copper. The outer conductor is enclosed by a plastic jacket. It is named coaxial because the two conductors are coaxial. Typical diameter of coaxial cable lies with in range of 0.4 inch to 1 inch. The main application of coaxial cable is cable T.V. The coaxial cable has large bandwidth, attenuation is low.

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2.  Twisted Pair: A Twisted pair made up of two insulated copper wires, normally 1mm thick. The wires are warped together in a helical form the purpose of twisting is to lower the cross talk interference between several pairs. Twisted Pair are more cheaper then coaxial cable but it is subject to noise and electromagnetic interference and attenuation is large.

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Twisted Pair can be further classified in 2 categories:

Unshielded twisted pair: In this kind no insulation is provided, thus they are susceptible to interference.

Shielded twisted pair: In this a protective solid insulation is provided but shielded twisted pair are more  expensive and not commonly used.

The most ordinary application of twisted pair is the telephone system. Nearly all telephones are linked to the telephone company office by a twisted pair. Twisted pair  can  work for  several  kilometres  without  amplification,  but  for  big  distances repeaters are needed. Twisted pairs cables can be used for both analog and digital transmission. The  bandwidth depends on  the  width of wire  and  the  distance travelled. Twisted pairs are usually limited in distance, bandwidth and rate of data.

3.  Optical Fiber: In optical fiber light is used for sending data. In common terms occurrence of light is taken as bit 1 and its absence as bit 0. Optical fiber made up of inner core of either glass or plastic. Core is enclosed by cladding of the same material but its refractive  index is different  .  This  cladding  is  surrounded by a  plastic  jacket  which prevents optical fiber from electromagnetic interference and severely environments. It uses the principle of total internal reflection to transfer data over optical fibers. These are much better in bandwidth as compared to copper wire, since there is barely any attenuation or electromagnetic interference in optical wires. Hence there are fewer resources to improve quality of signal, in long distance transmission. Main disadvantage of optical fiber is that end points are fairly expensive. (for example:- switches)

Differences between various kinds of optical fibers:

1.  Depending on material

§       Made of glass

§       Made of plastic.

2.  Depending on radius

§       Thin optical fiber

§       Thick optical fiber

3.  Depending on light source

§       LED (for low bandwidth)

§       Injection lased diode (for high bandwidth)

 

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