Management Information Systems:
MIS can be defined as an integrated, user-machine system for providing information to support managerial, operational, and decision-making functions in an organization. According to Barry E. Cushing, MIS is "a set of human and capital resources within an organization which is responsible for the collection and processing of data to produce information which is useful to all levels of management in planning and controlling the activities of an organization." For the purpose of analysis, planning, control, and decision making, the system uses manual procedures, computer hardware and software, data models, and a database.
Information is needed at all levels within a business organization. However, its scope, content, and presentation differ from one level to another. Based on the location at which information is used, it can be classified as operational, tactical, and strategic information. This has been depicted as a pyramid structure in diagram.
The bottom-most layer of the pyramid consists of information for transaction processing, status inquiries, etc. The second level from the bottom consists of information resources to support day-to-day operations and control. Information obtained in these layers is called as operational information. The third level from the bottom consists of information system resources to help in tactical planning and decision making for management control and the information generated in this level is termed as tactical information. Finally, the top level consists of information resources to support strategic planning and policy-making by the top management. Information generated at this level is called as strategic information. Each level makes use of data provided by the lower levels, although some new data may also be included.
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