Benzaldehyde & Method of preparation of Benzaldehyde, Assignment Help

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Benzaldehyde, C6H5CHO 

          Benzaldehyde is the simplest aromatic aldehyde. It happens in bitter almonds in the form of its glucoside, amygdalin (C20H27O11N). When amygdalin is boiled with dilute acids, it hydrolyses goes into benzaldehyde, HCN nad glucose.

         234_preparation of benzaldehyde.png

         Benzaldehyde is also defined as oil of bitter almonds.

         (1) Method of preparation

         (i) Laboratory method : It is conveniently prepared by boiling benzyl chloride with copper nitrate or lead nitrate solution in a current of carbon dioxide.

1976_preparation of benzaldehyde1.png

         (ii) Rosenmund reaction :

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         (iii) By dry distillation of a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium formate

         1854_preparation of benzaldehyde3.png

         (iv) By oxidation of benzyl alcohol : This involves the treatment of benzyl alcohol with dil. HNO3 or acidic potassium dichromate or chromic anhydride in acetic anhydride or with copper catalyst at 350o C.

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This process is used for commercial production of benzaldehyde.

         (v) By oxidation of Toluene

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         Commercially the oxidation of toluene is done with air and diluted with nitrogen (to prevent complete oxidation) at 500o C in the presence of oxides of Mn, Mo  or Zr as catalyst.

         (vi) Etard's reaction344_preparation of benzaldehyde6.png

         (vii) Gattermann-koch aldehyde synthesis : Benzene is converted into benzaldehyde by passing a mixture of carbon monoxide and HCl gas under high pressure into the ether solution of benzene in presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride and cuprous chloride.

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         (viii) Gattermann reaction

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         (ix) Stephen's reaction : Benzaldehyde is obtained by partial reduction of phenyl cyanide with stannous chloride and passing dry HCl gas in ether solution followed by hydrolysis of the aldimine stannic chloride with water.

         (x)  By ozonolysis of styrene

         1885_preparation of benzaldehyde9.png

         (xi) Grignard reaction  

767_preparation of benzaldehyde10.png

         Other reagents like carbon monoxide or HCN can also be used in place of ethyl formate.


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