Statistics >> Statistics Apporach
Origin of statistics
Statistics was born as the Science of Kings. It had its origin in the needs of the administrators in the ancient days for collecting and maintaining quantitative information about their population and wealth with a view to make policies for citizens. The word 'Statistics' resembles with Latin word 'Status', Italian word 'Sratista', German word 'Statistik' carrying the same meaning of a political state. In-the early years when this branch of science was not much developed, the data were collected by the government officials for the purpose of administration.
About 3050 B.C. the first collection of data was made in Egypt regarding the population and wealth for raising the pyramids. Such collection of data later held in England, Germany and many other western countries in the middle ages. In India during the period of Chandragupta Maurya a system of collection of vital statistics was evolved and births and deaths were started to be registered. Emperor Akbar made a wider administrative use of statistical surveys in the country. The histories of almost all the countries of the world reveal that statistics was used as a vital instrument for administration of the various activities of the states for which it was regarded as the 'Science of Statecraft'.
DEVELOPMENT OF STATISTICS
Statistics is an old science. For the last few centuries, it has remained a part of mathematics as the original work was done by mathematicians like Pascal (1623-1662), 1. Bernoulli (1654-1705), De Moivre (1667-1754), Laplace (1749-1827), Gauss (1777-1855), and many others. The Royal statistical society of London was founded in 1834 and the American Statistical Association in 1839.
The theory ofprobabil1ty and the normal distribution have been very important in the development of the subject and they are now of primary importance in the theory of Statistics. Blaise Pascal (1623-62), Fermat (1601-65), Ftuygens (1629-95) developed some new ideas. A first book on probability was published in 1654. Jacob Bernoulli (1654- 1705), Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754) and P.S. Laplace (1749-1827) made great contributions to the early theory and application of probability. Abraham de Moivre developed the equation of the normal curve (1733). Much later, Laplace and Gauss (1777- 1855) developed the same 'results independently ofeach other.
The biologist Charles Darwin (1809-82) and-Mendal (1822-84) were not statisticians and they did not spend their time in placing statistics on a firm foundation although they used statistics in their work.
Karl Pearson (1857-1936), initially a mathematical physicist, after-becoming interested in the evolution spent nearly half a century in serious statistical research. He helped to found the journal 'Biometrica'. Sir Ronald Fisher (1890-1962) made many important contributions to the subject. Fisher and his students applied statistics in many fields, particularly agriculture, biology and genetics. Some of the basic theory on hypothesis testing was presented by J. Neyman and E.S. Pearson as late as 1936 and 1.938.
Since the last 1920's interest in the application of statistical methods to all types of problems has grown rapidly.
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