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# Refraction Assignment Help

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Optical Physics - Refraction

**Refraction**

When an oblique ray of light enters one medium from another (optically different or dispersive medium) then it changes its path. Such a phenomenon is called refraction.

Laws of refraction there are two laws of refractions

**1μ**_{2} = sin I/sin r

**μ = sin I/sin r = c/v or v**_{1}/v_{2}) = 1/sin C

Where C is critical angle.

**μ = sin (A + Dm/2)** in prism, where

**μ = sin A/2**

**δ = (μ - 1) α**

If angle of prism a is small and δ is angle of minimum deviation

**μ = A + B/λ**_{2} + C/λ4 is Cauchy’s principle

**1μ**_{3} = 1 μ_{2} x 2μ_{3} 2μ_{1 }= 1/1μ_{2}

Incident ray normal and refracted rays are coplanar

**Fermat’s principle:- **when a ray of light passes from one point to another by any number of reflections and refractions, the path taken by light ray is the one for which the corresponding time taken is the least (or has shortest optical path).

**Optical path length:-** is **μl **if l is the distance travelled in a medium of refractive indexμ.

Refraction through a curved surface

**μ**_{2}/v – μ_{1}/u = μ_{2} – μ_{1}/R

In all curved surfaces this formula can be applied with appropriate sign convention and remembering that**μ**_{1} is the refractive index of the medium in which object lies.

Dispersive power **ω = δv – δr/δ = μv – μr/μ = 1**

Where δv and δr are minimum deviations for violet and red colours, δ is mean deviation (for yellow colour) μv and μr are refractive indexes for violet and red colours and μ is refractive index for yellow or mean colour.

**δ = δv + δr/2 **(if δ is not given)

Similarly **μ = μv + μr/2 **(if μ is not given)

**ωδ = δv – δr** is called angular dispersion

**Angular dispersion ∝ 1/λ**_{3}

In a prism **I + e = A + D**

Note that D is minimum for a particular I, called angle of minimum deviation and is denoted by **Dm**

At minimum deviation **I = e, r**_{1} = r_{2} and ray through prism, is parallel to base of the prism.

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**Refraction**

Laws of refraction there are two laws of refractions

**1μ**

_{2}= sin I/sin r**μ = sin I/sin r = c/v or v**

_{1}/v_{2}) = 1/sin CWhere C is critical angle.

**μ = sin (A + Dm/2)**in prism, where

**μ = sin A/2**

**δ = (μ - 1) α**

If angle of prism a is small and δ is angle of minimum deviation

**μ = A + B/λ**is Cauchy’s principle

_{2}+ C/λ4**1μ**

_{3}= 1 μ_{2}x 2μ_{3}2μ_{1 }= 1/1μ_{2}

Incident ray normal and refracted rays are coplanar

**Fermat’s principle:-**when a ray of light passes from one point to another by any number of reflections and refractions, the path taken by light ray is the one for which the corresponding time taken is the least (or has shortest optical path).

**Optical path length:-**is

**μl**if l is the distance travelled in a medium of refractive indexμ.

Refraction through a curved surface

**μ**

_{2}/v – μ_{1}/u = μ_{2}– μ_{1}/RIn all curved surfaces this formula can be applied with appropriate sign convention and remembering that

**μ**

_{1}is the refractive index of the medium in which object lies.

Dispersive power

**ω = δv – δr/δ = μv – μr/μ = 1**

Where δv and δr are minimum deviations for violet and red colours, δ is mean deviation (for yellow colour) μv and μr are refractive indexes for violet and red colours and μ is refractive index for yellow or mean colour.

**δ = δv + δr/2**(if δ is not given)

Similarly

**μ = μv + μr/2**(if μ is not given)

**ωδ = δv – δr**is called angular dispersion

**Angular dispersion ∝ 1/λ**

_{3}

In a prism

**I + e = A + D**

Note that D is minimum for a particular I, called angle of minimum deviation and is denoted by

**Dm**

At minimum deviation

**I = e, r**

_{1}= r_{2}and ray through prism, is parallel to base of the prism.

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