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# Reflection And Diffusion Assignment Help

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Optical Physics - Reflection And Diffusion

**Reflection And Diffusion**

Reflection rebounding of light from a polished surface.

**Laws of reflection (a) I = r **

**(b)** Incident ray, normal and reflected ray are coplanar. If the mirror is rotated by an angle θ reflected ray moves by 2θ

Diffusion reflection from a rough surface (like wall) is called diffusion. A parallel incident beam will not emerge out parallel because it meets different angles at the reflecting surface. When two mirrors are inclined at an angle θ the numbers of images are formed for an object placed in front of them.

Number of images **n = 360 / θ if 360 / θ** is odd and object does not lie on angle bisector or placed symmetrically **n = 360 / θ - 1 if 360 / θ** is odd and object placed on angle bisector or placed symmetrically.

Number of images** n = 360 / θ - 1 if 360 / θ** is even.

Characteristics of image formed with a plane mirror

Erect

Virtual

**Size of image = size of object**

Image distance = object distance (measured from mirror

Lateral inversion (left appears right and right appears left)

**A, O, M, N ….X Y **and so on eleven letters show lateral symmetry. When two mirrors are parallel **θ = 0**therefore number of images = **∞**.

If the mirror is thick more than 1 image is formed and the 2nd image (formed due to first reflection from polished surface) is the brightest.

When a ray is reflected from a plane mirror angle of deviation **δ = π - 2i**

Minimum height of a mirror so that a person can see his full image in the mirror is half the height of the person.

**Sign convention: - **consider pole p as origin. All distances to its left are negative and all distances to its right are positive.

**Mirror formulae: - 1 / v + 1/u = 1 /f f= R/ 2 **

Where

V = image distance from pole to the mirror

U = object distance from pole to the mirror

F = focal length

R = radius of curvature

**Real image**
**Virtual image**
Rays actually converge to form image
Rays appear to diverge
Image is inverted
Image is erect
Can be obtained on screen
Cannot be obtained on screen
Magnification is negative
Magnification is positive

**Magnification (lateral):- M lat = - v / u = I / O**

**M **_{lat} = v –f / f = f / u – f

Lens makers formula when surrounding medium is air is

Magnification (axial) **m **_{axial} = 0 (v_{2}/u_{2}) (valid for small objects)

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**Reflection And Diffusion**

**Laws of reflection (a) I = r**

**(b)**Incident ray, normal and reflected ray are coplanar. If the mirror is rotated by an angle θ reflected ray moves by 2θ

Diffusion reflection from a rough surface (like wall) is called diffusion. A parallel incident beam will not emerge out parallel because it meets different angles at the reflecting surface. When two mirrors are inclined at an angle θ the numbers of images are formed for an object placed in front of them.

Number of images

**n = 360 / θ if 360 / θ**is odd and object does not lie on angle bisector or placed symmetrically

**n = 360 / θ - 1 if 360 / θ**is odd and object placed on angle bisector or placed symmetrically.

Number of images

**n = 360 / θ - 1 if 360 / θ**is even.

Characteristics of image formed with a plane mirror

Erect

Virtual

**Size of image = size of object**

Image distance = object distance (measured from mirror

Lateral inversion (left appears right and right appears left)

**A, O, M, N ….X Y**and so on eleven letters show lateral symmetry. When two mirrors are parallel

**θ = 0**therefore number of images =

**∞**.

If the mirror is thick more than 1 image is formed and the 2nd image (formed due to first reflection from polished surface) is the brightest.

When a ray is reflected from a plane mirror angle of deviation

**δ = π - 2i**

Minimum height of a mirror so that a person can see his full image in the mirror is half the height of the person.

**Sign convention: -**consider pole p as origin. All distances to its left are negative and all distances to its right are positive.

**Mirror formulae: - 1 / v + 1/u = 1 /f f= R/ 2**

Where

V = image distance from pole to the mirror

U = object distance from pole to the mirror

F = focal length

R = radius of curvature

**Real image****Virtual image**_{lat}= v –f / f = f / u – f

_{axial}= 0 (v

_{2}/u

_{2})